A-Z Index of the Linux BASH basic commands
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  1. #1

    A-Z Index of the Linux BASH basic commands

    Have anyone put this on?....

    just list everything down.. maybe some commands r n't here..

    alias Create an alias
    awk Find and Replace text within file(s)

    break Exit from a loop
    builtin Run a shell builtin

    cal Display a calendar
    case Conditionally perform a commandcat Display the contents of a file
    cd Change Directorychgrp Change group ownershipchmod Change access permissionschown Change file owner and group
    chroot Run a command with a different root directorycksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
    clear Clear terminal screen
    cmp Compare two files
    comm Compare two sorted files line by line
    command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
    continue Resume the next iteration of a loopcp Copy one or more files to another locationcron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
    crontab Schedule a command to run at a later timecsplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
    cut Divide a file into several parts

    date Display or change the date & time
    dc Desk Calculator
    dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
    declare Declare variables and give them attributesdf Report filesystem disk space usagediff Display the differences between two filesdiff3 Show differences among three filesdir Briefly list directory contents
    dircolors Colour setup for `ls'dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
    dirs Display list of remembered directories
    du Estimate file space usage

    echo Display message on screen
    ed A line-oriented text editor (edlin)
    egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
    eject Eject CD-ROM
    enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
    env Display, set, or remove environment variables
    expand Convert tabs to spaces
    export Set an environment variable
    exec Execute a command
    expr Evaluate expressions
    eval Evaluate several commands/arguments

    factor Print prime factors
    false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
    fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
    fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
    fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
    find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
    fmt Reformat paragraph text
    fold Wrap input lines to fit in specified width
    for Expand words, and execute commands
    format Format disks or tapes
    free Display memory usage
    function Define Function Macros

    gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
    getopts Parse positional parameters
    grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
    groups Print group names a user is in
    gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

    hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
    head Output the first part of file(s)history Command History
    hostname Print or set system name

    id Print user and group id's
    if Conditionally perform a command
    import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
    info Help info
    install Copy files and set attributes

    join Join lines on a common field

    kill Kill a process

    less Display output one screen at a time
    let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
    ln Make links between files
    local Create variables
    logname Print current login name
    logout Exit a login shell
    lpc Line printer control program
    lpr Off line print
    lprint Print a file
    lprintd Abort a print job
    lprintq List the print queue
    lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
    ls List information about file(s)

    m4 Macro processor
    man Help manual
    mkdir Create new folder(s)
    mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
    mknod Make block or character special files
    more Display output one screen at a time
    mount Mount a file system
    mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
    mv Move or rename files or directories

    nice Change job scheduling priority
    nl Number lines and write files
    nohup Run a command immune to hangups

    passwd Modify a user password
    paste Merge lines of files
    pathchk Check file name portability
    popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
    pr Convert text files for printing
    printcap printer capability database
    printenv Print environment variables
    printf Format and print data
    pushd Save and then change the current directory
    pwd Print Working Directory

    quota Display disk usage and limits
    quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
    quotactl Set disk quotas

    ram ram disk device
    read read a line from standard input
    readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
    remsync Synchronize remote files
    return Exit a shell function
    rm Remove files
    rmdir Remove folder(s)

    screen Terminal window manager
    sdiff Merge two files interactively
    sed Stream Editor
    select Accept keyboard input
    seq Print numeric sequences
    set Manipulate shell variables and functions
    shift Shift positional parameters
    shopt Shell Options
    sleep Delay for a specified time
    sort Sort text files
    source Run commands from a file `.'
    split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
    su Run a command with substitute user and group id
    sum Print a checksum for a file
    symlink Make a new name for a file
    sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

    tac Concatenate and write files in reverse
    tail Output the last part of files
    tar Tape ARchiver
    tee Redirect output to multiple files
    test Evaluate a conditional expression
    time Measure Program Resource Use
    times User and system times
    touch Change file timestamps
    trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
    tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
    true Do nothing, successfully
    tsort Topological sort
    tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
    type Describe a command

    ulimit Limit user resources
    umask Users file creation mask
    umount Unmount a device
    unalias Remove an alias
    uname Print system information
    unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
    uniq Uniquify files
    units Convert units from one scale to another
    unset Remove variable or function names
    unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
    until Execute commands (until error)
    users Print login names of users currently logged in
    uuencode Encode a binary file uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

    v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
    vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')

    watch Execute/display a program periodically
    wc Print byte, word, and line counts
    which Show full path of commands
    while Execute commands
    who Print all usernames currently logged in
    whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')

    yes Print a string until interrupted

    .period Run commands from a file
    ### Comment / Remark

  2. #2
    Fastest Thing Alive s0nIc's Avatar
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    hahah wow.. tnx.. just what i needed

  3. #3
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    Yeah, pretty good and useful. Thx
    [blur]On a toujours besoin d\'un plus petit que soi. [/blur]
    French diction

  4. #4
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    spanks [BUMP]

  5. #5
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    ****... that's a lot of time invested.....

    thanks for the list.....
    now to cut, paste, and print

  6. #6
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    lol yeah i needed that thanks
    aislinn, Aria, BTBAM, chevelle, codeseven, Cky, dredg, evergreen terrace, from autumn to ashes,hopesfall, hxc, luti-kriss, nirvana, norma jean, shai hulud, this hero dies, tool, underoath, zao,

  7. #7
    Senior Member cwk9's Avatar
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    Perfect just what a Linux newbie like me needs.
    Its not software piracy. Iím just making multiple off site backups.

  8. #8
    Senior Member
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    no chat commands?! hahaha its a good overall idea of useful commands

  9. #9
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    It give me a good idea.... thanks...

  10. #10
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    Talking Basic Linux Hacking

    Basic UNIX hacking

    UNIX is probably the most commonly used operating system on Telenet, and is the easiest to hack, atleast to me, since it doesn't record any bad login attempts. You know you've found a UNIX system when it gives you a "Login" prompt, and then a "Password" prompt. To get in you should first try the default logins.(Listed below.) If these don't work try some of the passwords listed in Section M. If these don't work try to find backdoors. These are passwords that may have been put in to allow the programmer (or someone else who could be in a position to make a backdoor) to get access into the system. These are usually not known about by anyone but the individual who made it. The Login (usually the account holders name) has 1-8 characters and the Password is 6-8 characters. Both can be either letters or numbers, or a combination of the two.
    Once you get in, you should get a "$" prompt, or some other special character like it. You should only use lower case letters when hacking UNIX, this seems to be standard format. If you type "man [command]" at the prompt, it should list all of the commands for that system. Anyway, here are the default Logins and Passwords:


    Login: Password:

    root root
    root system
    sys sys
    sys system
    daemon daemon
    uucp uucp
    tty tty
    test test
    unix unix
    unix test
    bin bin
    adm adm
    adm admin
    admin adm
    admin admin
    sysman sysman
    sysman sys
    sysman system
    sysadmin sysadmin
    sysadmin sys
    sysadmin system
    sysadmin admin
    sysadmin adm
    who who
    learn learn
    uuhost uuhost
    guest guest
    host host
    nuucp nuucp
    rje rje
    games games
    games player
    sysop sysop
    root sysop
    demo demo


    Once you are in, the first thing that you need to do is save the password file to your hard drive or to a disk. The password file contains the Logins and Passwords. The passwords are encoded. To get the UNIX password file, depending on what type of UNIX you are in, you can type one of the following things:

    /etc/passwd
    or
    cat /etc/passwd

    The first one is the standard command, but there are other commands as well, like the second one. Once you get the password file, it should look like this:


    john:234abc56:9999:13:John Johnson:/home/dir/john:/bin/john


    Broken down, this is what the above password file states:


    Username: john
    Encrypted Password: 234abc56
    User Number: 9999
    Group Number: 13
    Other Information: John Johnson
    Home Directory: /home/dir/john
    Shell: /bin/john


    If the password file does not show up under one of the above two commands, then it is probably shadowed.
    The following definition of password shadowing was taken from the alt.2600 hack faq:
    "Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password field is replaced with a special token and the encrypted password is stored in a seperate file which is not readable by normal system users."
    If the password file is shadowed, you can find it in one of the following places, depending on the type of UNIX you are using:


    UNIX System Type: Path: Token:

    AIX 3 /etc/security/passwd !
    or /tcb/auth/files/<first letter of #
    username>/<username>

    A/UX 3.Os /tcb/files/auth/*

    BSD4.3-Reno /etc/master.passwd *

    ConvexOS 10 /etc/shadpw *

    Convex0S 11 /etc/shadow *

    DG/UX /etc/tcb/aa/user *

    EP/IX /etc/shadow x

    HP-UX /.secure/etc/passwd *

    IRIX 5 /etc/shadow x

    Linux 1.1 /etc/shadow *

    OSF/1 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag] *

    SCO UNIX #.2.x /tcb/auth/files/<first letter of *
    username>/<username>

    SunOS 4.1+c2 /etc/security/passwd.adjunct ##

    SunOS 5.0 /etc/shadow

    System V 4.0 /etc/shadow x

    System V 4.2 /etc/security/* database

    Ultrix 4 /etc/auth[.dir|.pag] *

    UNICOS /etc/udb *


    Some passwords can only be used for a certain amount of time without having to be changed, this is called password aging. In the password file example below, the "C.a4" is the password aging data:


    bob:123456,C.a4:6348:45:Bob Wilson:/home/dir/bob:/bin/bob


    The characters in the password aging data stand for the following:


    1. Maximum number of weeks a password can be used without changing.
    2. Minimum number of weeks a password must be used before being changed.
    3&4. Last time password was changed, in number of weeks since 1970.


    The password aging data can be decoded using the chart below:

    Character: Number:

    . 0
    / 1
    0 2
    1 3
    2 4
    3 5
    4 6
    5 7
    6 8
    7 9
    8 10
    9 11
    A 12
    B 13
    C 14
    D 15
    E 16
    F 17
    G 18
    H 19
    I 20
    J 21
    K 22
    L 23
    M 24
    N 25
    O 26
    P 27
    Q 28
    R 29
    S 30
    T 31
    U 32
    V 33
    W 34
    X 35
    Y 36
    Z 37
    a 38
    b 39
    c 40
    d 41
    e 42
    f 43
    g 44
    h 45
    i 46
    j 47
    k 48
    l 49
    m 50
    n 51
    o 52
    p 53
    q 54
    r 55
    s 56
    t 57
    u 58
    v 59
    w 60
    x 61
    y 62
    z 63


    Now, explore the system freely, be careful very carefull not to get caught,have fun! and Dance around the system

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