Hello ppl for those of you who read my last tut on the wonderfull UNIX os here is some more stuff im typing up because of you guessed it boredom.Keep an eye out for my next tutorial on UNIX it should be out in a couple of weeks.I decided to write this out here because of my last tut i typed up in abi word was really messy thanks to all who left good honest opinions

Ok to use the following commands and misc stuff i decide to put in here you will need a shell account or linux/BSD operating system if you dont have unix or linux telnet in to cyberspace.org or sdf.lonestar.com that is only 2 free shell providers off the top of my head use google and you will find more.

To start using these commands you will need to log in to a remote system to do that we pull up our telnet client if your in windows click Start> Run > telnet if your using linux you can try this on your shell or if you want to telnet in to a remote host type telnet press return or enter which ever is on your keyboard then type open then enter then the host or IP address of the remote sytem you are going to log in to.

Ok lets get started im going to cover the basics as like my last tutorial and move on from there the basic commands are simple to understand and remember the commands are as follows

cd:: the cd command moves you around the directorys say we were in our home directory and we wanted to change to anther directory say it was the tmp directory we wanted to move to we would give the command
cd /tmp
and to verify we were trully in that directory we would give the command pwd after you give the command you will see under the bash prompt or whatever shell your using /tmp showing that we are really in the tmp directory
the pwd command stands for previous working directory

ls:: The ls command list all the files and sub directorys in the current directory we are working in so we are in the /tmp directory to see all the file you give the command ls -a that lists all the files. And to see all the files plus the hidden files to we give the command ls -la when you give that command you will be thinking to your self *if your new to nix* WTF do those letter's meen i will be explaining them later not to worry.say the directory has a long listing and it fly's out your shell and you didnt get to read it all you give the command ls -alF | less and it will let you scroll through the whole contents of that directory. We used the | pipe command there which tells the system to pipe the ls command to less which lets us scroll through the directorys u can also use ls -alF | less | more

mkdir:: The mkdir command lets us make a directory so say you were installing something on your linux box UNIX box or you just wanted to make a directory in your shell you need to tell the system where to put that directory so say it was the tmp directory you wanted to make a sub directory in you would give give the command
mkdir /tmp/<what you want to call the subdirectory>

rmdir::The rmdir command is used to remove directorys there isnt much else to say about it

cp::: The copy command is used to copy file from directorys so in that last part i explained about making directorys so now you want to put a file you have in your home directory to the directory we just made to do this you need to be in the directory the file is in so im using the home directory as an example so to copy a file there you give the command cp <filename> /tmp/<what you named that directory> you cd to the directory you have just copied the file to and give the command ls to see if the file is there and it has truly copied it there

chmod::The chmod command is used to set the mode of a file or directory you may only change the mode of a file or directory if you have permmision to do so or you are roothere is what files look like unix refers to files and directorys as just files
-rw------- 1 prodikal prodikal 7178 sep 19 14:19 .xsession errors
drwxr-xr-x 2 prodikal prodikal 4096 aug 22 23:33 .xvpics

files that start with a d are directorys and files that start with
- is a regular file
l symbolic link
c character device
b block device
s socket device
charecter devices block devices and sockets are usually in the /dev directory
for the other directorys you have diffrent combos
u is the user r is readable
g is the group w is writable
o other x is executable

user is only accessable by the owner of the file
group is accessable by all people in the group
other any 1 on the system can enter the file

when using the chmod command to set or change fle permmisions there are 2 notations that are recognizable they are called alpha and octal
alpha:-: you use alpha with + and - to change the directorys to r w or x
u could use it like this
chmod u+rw,g+r,o+r <file name> what we have done here is made a file readable and writable by the user made it readable by the group and made it readable by other which is any 1 else on the system

octal:-: is the use of numbers after the chmod command they consist of 3 or 4 numbers an example chmod400 <filename> what we have done here is made a single file readable by the owner here is the rest of the octal switches
400 read by owner
200 writable by the owner of the file
100 execute by the owner of the file

040 readable by group
020 writable by group
010 executable by group

004 readable by others
002 writable by others
001 executable by others

to read more about chmod type "man chmod" without the quotes

id:: The id command command shows your use id (UID) and your group id (GID)

uptime:: The uptime command is used to see how long the computer you are using or logged in to has been up and runnig from its last reeboot

date:: the date command shows you the date of course :/

uname:: the uname command give you info about the computer you are on or logged in to

whoami:: the whoami command is useful if you have been bouncing around systems and forgot who you are on that system

du :: the du command prints the disk usage in (kb) in the directory you are in

df:: This command tells you how much free space is left on the mounted file system

ps::This command tells you what rpograms are running u can also use "ps aux"

who:: The who command shows you how is presently logged in to the system

w:: The w command is like the who the ps a and uptime rolled in to 1 you can use it like "w prodikal" it will tell you how long i have been idle what was the last commands i gave how long i have been logged in etc

top:: the top command tells you all sorts of info on the system on running processes including the percentage of the cpu and memory being consumed by the running processes aand its PID ( proccess id )it also shows you the upytime of the computer you are on

well i hope this will keep some 1 ocupied for a little while remember my other tut is out in a couple of weeks keep u r eyes open for it