Network Terms Simplified
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Thread: Network Terms Simplified

  1. #1
    er0k
    Guest

    Network Terms Simplified

    It has been suggested that I write a tutorial on basic fundamentals of
    networking. Networking of course, is how computers communicate with each
    other, share files, hardware, etc. This tutorial is intended for those who
    can network their computers if they know what the terms mean. I cannot get
    OS (operating system, i.e. windows, linux etc) specific in this one, since
    it is intended for you the networker, to grasp certain terms that are
    sometimes bothersome. So here goes:

    1. MAC Address - This is the address that is specific to your computers
    hardware. MAC stands for Media Access Control. Think of this as your
    "Physical address" Address meaning where your computer is located on the
    network.

    2. IP Address -Internet Protocol; This numeric address specifies your
    computers location on
    the network. It can change very easily. For instance say you are laying
    out the ground work for a new network. You want the addresses to be
    chronological, you have say 3 computers. You wouldnt worry about the mac
    addresses for they are machine specific.

    Computer A ====network_cable========ComputerB============ComptuterC

    192.168.1.100 192.168.1.101 192.168.1.102


    IP Address^ IP Address^ IP Address^


    Therefore computer A has the address 192.168.1.100 computer B has the
    address 192.168.1.101 and computer C has the address 192.168.1.102

    These fall in order and are unique to themselves. The "192" in
    192.168.xxx.xxx is a certain area of ip addresses. It is usually
    recommended when networking you DHCP your addresses, meaning have a DHCP
    server automatically assign internal ips.

    The basic different between internal and external ips is that internal is
    what is on your network (e.g. 192.168.xxx.xxx) while an external is what
    ip you are given when you connect to the internet.

    3. DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It allows you the network
    admistrator to not have to edit each computers address on your network.
    What it does is assign each computers addresses automatically. While this
    doesnt seem too helpful on a small network, it is a great tool when you
    have a very LARGE network.

    4. ARP - Address Resolution Protocol. This is generally not used by a home
    user or even a small business (manually that is) but what it does is maps
    IP addresses to MAC addresses.

    5. A router is normally a device that decides where the packets will go
    (forwarding) on your network. Although the router can sometimes be
    software installed on a computer, for instance SMOOTHWALL, its normally a
    piece of firmware that has a power plugin, led lights for confirmation,
    and rj-45 connector(s) for you to plug your network cable in. It is a
    great tool to use if you have several computers on a network that you want
    internet distributed upon as well as more security. A NAT router (Network
    Address Translation) is generally the most secure of all. Its is often
    part of a firewall built within the router, or even by itself. It maps the
    routers internal address's separate from the externals, keeping nasty data
    out without a test.

    6. Firewall - A firewall is a program or a set of programs that protect
    certain things or resources of your network from other networks. What a
    firewall does in general, is look over each packet (piece of data
    including headers) and determine whether it should forward it or not. Most
    modern firewall programs provide information to you when it is confused of
    whether passing the packet(s) along or not. Firewalls are normally
    incorporated with routers or network devices of some sort.

  2. #2
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Dec 2002
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    Hey dude the one thing that I would mention as well without getting specific is that 10.* 172.* and 192.* are "non routable ip's" which is why people use them on their internal
    networks. Later dude.

  3. #3
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Aug 2001
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    good job

    nice tutorial er0k....short n sweet
    knowledge iz an addictive power...itz digital opium injected though ur nervous system

  4. #4
    Banned
    Join Date
    Dec 2002
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    394
    great tut erok. I was going to post one like this but U beat me to tha punch.
    Hopefully those unfamiliar with the terms read the Network+ exam guide.
    It help U understand alot.

  5. #5
    Banned
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    .10 .172 .192 are "private" ip's

  6. #6
    Trumpet-Eared Gentoo Freak
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    Nice tutorial.

    Greetz,
    Come and check out our wargame-site @ http://www.rootcontest.org
    We chat @ irc.smdc-network.org #lobby

  7. #7
    Senior Member
    Join Date
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    Originally posted here by drew
    .10 .172 .192 are "private" ip's
    Right. For more details, search for "RFC 1918".

    Ammo
    Credit travels up, blame travels down -- The Boss

  8. #8
    Senior Member
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    Dec 2002
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    I suggest you read what I wrote again. 10.* 172.* 192.* are non-routable ip's which in essence is the same as saying private. By the way it is type in as the above not .10 or .172
    That would be your last octet vice your first. Your welcome.

  9. #9
    Senior Member
    Join Date
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    Originally posted here by drew
    .10 .172 .192 are "private" ip's
    Actually to be more exact, the RFC1918 (private) IP's are:

    10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
    172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
    192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

    Also, I think you missed the most important part of defining a MAC address. It is also know as the "burned-in" address, which means it is associated with your NIC, not your computer. If you switch NIC's, your MAC address will change. I was just a bit confused when you said it is where your computer is located on the network. To newbies, that would imply that it is based on a physical location (like 2nd floor).

    ARP - Is used all the time in any network, although it is done without the user knowing. You are right in that you can define a static ARP sometimes or even a Proxy-ARP depending on what you are doing.

  10. #10
    Senior Member
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    Dec 2002
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    You are correct on the exact ranges of course. I just assumed a little knowledge thats all.

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