Welcome to the fourth edition of my "Networking Simplified" tutorial
series. Hopefully you have gone over the first three, although the data
isn't really in much order, they still make good references. I just would
like to note that these tutorials already assume that you know why and
what networks are. That you have a reason formulated for learning about
networking etc. Basically what these do is break the information into
easily understandable slander.


A hub is either a common description of parts of a network, or an actual
piece of firmware. What a hub is, is basically a place where the data
convereges from one to multiple directions and then can be passed along to
other destinations. Also, as i went over network topologies before, in
"networking simplified - Part 03" a hub topology is basically a place
where other devices can connect and share resources (to a certain extent)
that they pass through the circuits.

An example of a hub (firmware) can be found at various sites on the
internet of course, but i would recommend either a linksys, or a netgear
(unless you wanna spend that extra huge wad of cash for a brilliant cisco


Of course, ethernet is the most wiodely used of all local area networks.
The standard is IEEE 802.3. Ethernet cables are usually coaxial (the same
type of cable that runs into your wall so you can have "cable television")
or twisted pair wires. Such as STP (Shielded twisted pair) and UTP
(Unprotected Twisted Pair).

Occasionally you will see wireless ethernet local area networks.

Giga = 10^9

Mega = 10^6

Tera = 10^12

kilo = 10^3

generally those prefixes for measurement of data transfer above are used
most. When you see Mb, that means Megabit. When you see Gb that means
Gigabit, or even MB and GB that mean MegaByte and GigaByte. Kinda like
most of your harddrives are measured in.


A switch and a hub are extremely similar as they send data from one point
to the next destination, and act as sort of a bridge. However, the OSI
model (Open Systems Interconnection), layers 2 and 3 are represented
differently with the data transfer. A switch and a hub can normally be
used for the same thing. One advantage of a switch is that it can actually
transfer data faster than a router. However this is only an advantage
whenever the switch itself has the functon of a router.


As stated above, OSI stands for (Open Systems Interconnection). The reason
i am going over this acronym by itself is mainly because it is the
"topology" of the internet. It can be used as a reference for how data
should or will be passed between places on a network. The OSI model
consists of many layers in which i will just touch on briefly and then go
into more detail in my 5th part of "Networking Simplified."

There are 7 common layers:

Layer 7. The application Layer

Layer 6. The presentation Layer

Layer 5. THe session Layer

Layer 4. The transport Layer

Layer 3. The Network Layer

Layer 2. The data-link Layer.

Layer 1. The physical layer.

Bit - Smallest unit of data in a computer, standing for Binary Digit, has
either a 1 or a 0, alive or dead (Some of you have seen the movie, i
wont mention it). These bits are designed to execture instruction in bits
* 8 which is = bytes. 1 byte = 8 bits.

Half a byte or 4 bits = a nibble.


I know some of the information has been random, but like i said its just
for reference and im just going off the top of my head for alot of this.
Thats why the order is messed up. Anyway come back for Networking
Simplified Part 5 for an extension of the OSI Model, and more, Networking
Terms Simplified for you.