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Thread: Linux Navigation - Part 02

  1. #1

    Linux Navigation - Part 02

    Ok, i have been asked to write a follow up tutorial to my first, Linux
    Navigation. This tutorial is going to go into a bit more detail about
    random occurences you might see in a bash shell. Note that all of these
    commands come from a bash shell. Bash standing for Bourne Again Shell is
    basically the most widely used shell enviornment, over tcsh and kourne

    Alright then now that we have established that this is going to be the
    bash shell, please note that bash-2.05a$ is going to be used alot, thats
    just *basically* the command prompt. Like bash-2.05a$ commands here
    parameters blah blah..

    Anyway, moving on.

    Pine - This is a mail client in ascii format on your linux machine, or at
    least it should be. cron and several other programs will send 'root' mail,
    normally in /var/spool/mail/root . Its a pain in the neck trying to use a
    text editor such as pico or vi to read your mail, so most prefer to use
    pine or elm.

    Now i personally prefer to use pine, because it is simply more efficient
    in my personal opinion, but others prefer elm. I recommend that you use
    pine, and i will teach you how to use pine now.

    root@wherever root]# pine

    will open up your mail for you if you have pine configured properly to
    look for mail in /var/spool/mail/root (shouldnt be a problem unless you
    had a bad install, because it puts it there by default) . Now pine will
    open up in the shell and give you several options. Help, Compose Message,
    Message Index, Folder List, Address Book, Setup, and Quit. You may either
    scroll through these options or press the following commands (just key

    ? for help

    C for compose Message (send email to someone, however you cant usually do
    this unless you have an smtp or pop3 of some sort setup.)

    I for Message Index - Just where your emails are, normally the ones sent
    by cron

    L folder list

    A address Book

    S setup (Configure your pine to your personal preferences)

    Q quit

    Now whenever you get into your message index, you can just look at the
    email by highlighting it and pressing enter. press < to go back to your
    previous page or whatever. D deletes message and you will be given the
    option to "expunge" the messages marked for deletion afterwards.

    On sending mail, you just ctrl^x to send once you have typed it in. ctrl^c
    will cancel any action you have made in the process. Now after you send,
    your sent messages will then be copied to your sent mail folder.

    Ok moving on from Pine, that is pretty self explanatory.

    Unpacking .bz2's is a common question i get, on how to do it.

    file.tar.bz2 - to unpack this is quite simple. All you need to do is type:

    tar xjf /path/to/file.tar.bz2

    And thats it, you have untarred a .bz2 // Please note that i prefer .bz2's
    because i believe one that they compress files better, and 2 that they are
    more efficient in uncompressing.

    Note that bz2 stands for bunzip2.

    how to create a bunzip2 is also quite simple

    tar -cj file list here > file.tar.bz2


    Using Pico


    If you don't prefer gedit or vi, vim or emacs, and want a quick easy to
    use text editor, then pico is right for you.

    syntax = pico file or file.whatever it is

    <note that you cannot pico a directory >

    once you are in pico, to write the file (save it after you edited it) type
    ctrl^o, to find something within the file, type ctrl^w, to exit the file,
    ctrl^x. Those are the most commonly used commands in pico, but there are
    of course others

    ctrl^G get help - get help using pico

    ctrl^J - justify

    ctrl^r - read the file

    ctrl^y previous page

    ctrl^V next page - very useful when wanting to get to the bottom of a very
    large file quickly.

    ctrl^k cut text

    ctrl^u uncut text

    ctrl^c cur pos

    ctrl^T to spell

    Now pico can be used as an html, php, c++, c, java, xml, dhtml, or any
    kind of programming language editor. Just make sure when you type ctrl^o
    you save it as the right type, for instance if i were writing a c++
    program i would do:

    root@whatever root]# pico something.cpp

    // c++ code here

    ctrl^o something.cpp


    Heh i love pico, as a matter of fact, I'm writing this tutorial in it!

    To compile a program in C:

    open the file in a text editor, save it as the right type (something.c)
    normally anyway,

    gcc -o whateveryouwantittobecalled whateveritis.c

    will then compile it.

    same with g++ except for its g++ -o something something.cpp instead of gcc
    and .c as the usual.

    Now i know gcc and g++ are much more powerful than this, but i am merely
    pointing out how to get started with this stuff, usually a newb unix user
    isn't a hardcore C++ or C developer already, and doesnt have to worry
    about say... making shared object files or something of the sort. + this
    isnt a programming tutorial, using gcc and g++ can be quite useful in
    creating things on your platform, and fixing them.

    Welp To end id like to say, I hate vi. Any comments or suggestions, i'm
    tired of writing email er0k@bytekill.net and i can add stuff that you
    would like to see me teach a bit. Eventually I will go into more detail
    and stuff...

  2. #2
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Mar 2003
    Great post!
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