reference for newbs on linux commands
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  1. #1
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    reference for newbs on linux commands

    here's an abbreviated list more at the site listed below hopfully linux newbs will find it interesting


    http://www.groovyweb.uklinux.net/ind...e=unixcommands

    Useful commands:

    cd................Change Directory
    cp................Copy File(s)
    cat...............Print Out A File Onto The Screen
    mv................Move File(s)
    mkdir.............Make A Directory
    locate............Find A File(s)
    ed................Editor
    vi................Editor
    ls -a.............List ALL Files
    locate /..........List ALL Files on entire hard drive
    rm................Delete
    tar...............Untar (like zip) a file
    netstat -r........Show all computers connected
    pine..............Opens pine, and e-mail system
    telnet............Program to connect to other computers
    lynx..............Internet browser
    who...............Show who you are
    kill..............Stop a program
    man...............Get help
    passwd...........Change password

    Another list:
    ls ................. show directory, in alphabetical order
    logout ............. logs off system
    mkdir .............. make a directory
    rmdir .............. remove directory (rm -r to delete folders with files)
    rm ................. remove files
    cd ................. change current directory
    man (command) ...... shows help on a specific command
    talk (user) ........ pages user for chat - (user) is a email address
    write (user) ....... write a user on the local system (control-c to end)

    pico (filename) .... easy to use text editor to edit files
    pine ............... easy to use mailer
    more (file) ........ views a file, pausing every screenful

    sz ................. send a file (to you) using zmodem
    rz ................. recieve a file (to the unix system) using zmodem

    telnet (host) ...... connect to another Internet site
    ftp (host) ......... connects to a FTP site
    archie (filename) .. search the Archie database for a file on a FTP site
    irc ................ connect to Internet Relay Chat
    lynx ............... a textual World Wide Web browset
    gopher ............. a Gopher database browser
    tin, trn ........... read Usenet newsgroups

    passwd ............. change your password
    chfn ............... change your "Real Name" as seen on finger
    chsh ............... change the shell you log into

    grep ............... search for a string in a file
    tail ............... show the last few lines of a file
    who ................ shows who is logged into the local system
    w .................. shows who is logged on and what they're doing
    finger (emailaddr).. shows more information about a user
    df ................. shows disk space available on the system
    du ................. shows how much disk space is being used up by folders
    chmod .............. changes permissions on a file
    bc ................. a simple calculator

    make ............... compiles source code
    gcc (file.c) ....... compiles C source into a file named 'a.out'

    gzip ............... best compression for UNIX files
    zip ................ zip for IBM files
    tar ................ combines multiple files into one or vice-versa
    lharc, lzh, lha .... un-arc'ers, may not be on your system
    Windows geht.net Enterprise Sever

  2. #2
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    For anyone looking for some recommended reading material, I'd suggest Linux: The Complete Reference - Fifth Edition. It starts at the absolute basics and move up to various system administration-oriented chapters, which is helpful for people who are just starting out on linux.

    For a more technical overview of linux, I've found Linux+ In Depth to be quite helpful for referencing more of the complex concepts. Hope that helps.
    Anthony Gorecki
    VSD Technologies

  3. #3
    Junior Member linuxalien's Avatar
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    Something else you may want to try is http://mandrake.safaribooksonline.com - Basically, you can pay as little as $10 a month to have 5 (or more books if you pay more) brand new books that are technically computer oriented in your bookshelf. You can read them, bookmark them, and search them singly or all at once. Each book is new and worth at least $40-70 or more. It's quite nice and having 5 $60 books for $10 is a real deal. You can even buy the hardcopy if you want.

    linuxalien

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    Check your local library

    One thing ill add to this, is that you should check your local library for online content,
    As I know alot of them do have alot of great content online.
    So check that out before you go and purchase online books.


    Dirty

  5. #5
    hey thanks you all I have just installed LINUX a few days ago for the first time ever
    http://www.danasoft.com/sig/c0bra.jpg
    click here to hack my computer and delete all my important files

  6. #6
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    thanks d00d.
    much appreciated

    Nightfalls_Girl

  7. #7
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    Well i am runnig XP pro with sp2+ ... I got an old box p2 I tried to install redhat 6.2... But I cant seam to understand the system.... I cant find the Xwindows... stuff... All that is ther is a Kernel.... I got my way throu...... but cant figure everything out....... since I have been using M$ from Dos 4...... till XP now......... got every single window u would want...if u would want em : 1.1 3.1 3.11 95 98 98se ME 2k Xp/h Xp/p 3K... & a leaked longhorn.(it is like the normal XP)

  8. #8
    Master-Jedi-Pimps0r & Moderator thehorse13's Avatar
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    startx will start the x windows system on most (if not, all) *nix builds. This should get you into KDE, gnome or whatever you have installed.
    Our scars have the power to remind us that our past was real. -- Hannibal Lecter.
    Talent is God given. Be humble. Fame is man-given. Be grateful. Conceit is self-given. Be careful. -- John Wooden

  9. #9
    AO's MMA Fanatic! Computernerd22's Avatar
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    When you install linux with a windows OS always install windows first. Then install linux in the TEXT MODE NOT GRAPHICAL, to do this type the command linux text

  10. #10
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    more stuff different day!
    UNIX Command Summary

    access()
    Used to check the accessibility of files

    int
    Access(pathname, access_mode)
    Char* pathname;
    int access-mode;
    The access modes are.
    04 read
    02 write
    01 execute (search)
    00 checks existence of a file

    & operator
    execute a command as a background process.

    banner
    prints the specified string in large letters. Each argument may be upto 10 characters long.

    break
    is used to break out of a loop. It does not exit from the program.

    Cal
    Produces a calender of the current month as standard output. The month (1-12) and year (1-9999) must be specified in full numeric format.

    Cal [[ month] year]

    Calendar
    Displays contents of the calendar file

    case operator
    The case operator is used to validate multiple conditions.

    Case $string in

    Pattern 1)
    Command list;;
    Command list;;

    Pattern 3)
    Command list;;
    easc

    cat
    (for concatenate) command is used to display the contents of a file. Used without arguments it takes input from standard input <Dtrl d> is used to terminate input.

    cat [filename(s)]
    cat > [filename]
    Data can be appended to a file using >>

    Some of the available options are :
    Cat [-options] filename(S)
    -s silent about files that
    cannot be accessed
    -v enables display of non printinging characters (except tabs, new lines, form-

    feeds)
    -t when used with –v, it causes tabs to be printed as ^I’s
    -e when used with –v, it causes $ to be printed at the end of each line
    The –t and –e options are ignored if the –v options is not specified.

    cd
    Used to change directories

    chgrp
    Changes the group that owns a file.
    Chgrp [grou –id] [filename]

    chmod
    Allows file permissions to be changed for each user. File permissions can be changed only by the owner (s).
    Chmod [+/-][rwx] [ugo] [filename]

    chown
    Used to change the owner of a file.
    The command takes a file(s) as source files and the login id of another user as the target.
    Chown [user-id] [filename]

    cmp
    The cmp command compares two files (text or binary) byte-by-byte and displays the first occurrence where the files differ.
    Cmp [filename1] [filename2] -1 gives a long listing

    comm.
    The comm command compares two sorted files and displays the instances that are common. The display is separated into 3 columns.
    Comm. filename1 filename2
    first displays what occurs in first files but not in the second
    second displays what occurs in second file but not in first
    third displays what is common in both files

    continue statement
    The rest of the commands in the loop are ignored. It moves out of the loop and moves on the next cycle.

    cp
    The cp (copy) command is used to copy a file.
    Cp [filename1] [filename2]

    cpio(copy input/output)
    Utility program used to take backups.
    Cpio operates in three modes:
    -o output
    -i input
    -p pass

    creat()
    the system call creates a new file or prepares to rewrite an existing file. The file pointer is set to the beginning of file.
    #include<sys/tyes.h>
    #include<sys/stat.h>
    int creat(path, mode)

    char *path;
    int mode;

    cut
    used to cut out parts of a file. It takes filenames as command line arguments or input from standard input. The command can cut columns as well as fields in a file. It however does not delete the selected parts of the file.
    Cut [-ef] [column/fie,d] filename
    Cut-d “:” –f1,2,3 filename
    Where –d indicates a delimiter specified within “:”

    df
    used to find the number of free blocks available for all the mounted file systems.
    #/etc/df [filesystem]

    diff
    the diff command compares text files. It gives an index of all the lines that differ in the two files along with the line numbers. It also displays what needs to be changed.
    Diff filename1 filename2

    echo
    The echo command echoes arguments on the command line.
    echo [arguments]

    env
    Displays the permanent environment variables associated with a user’s login id

    exit command
    Used to stop the execution of a shell script.

    expr command
    Expr (command) command is used for numeric computation.
    The operators + (add), -(subtract), *(multiplu), /(divide), (remainder) are allowed. Calculation are performed in order of normal numeric precedence.

    find
    The find command searches through directories for files that match the specified criteria. It can take full pathnames and relative pathnames on the command line.
    To display the output on screen the –print option must be specified

    for operator
    The for operator may be used in looping constructs where there is repetitive execution of a section of the shell program.
    For var in vall val2 val3 val4;

    Do commnds; done

    fsck
    Used to check the file system and repair damaged files. The command takes a device name as an argument
    # /etc/fsck /dev/file-system-to-be-checked.

    grave operator
    Used to store the standard the output of a command in an enviroment variable. (‘)

    grep
    The grep (global regular expression and print) command can be used as a filter to search for strings in files. The pattern may be either a fixed character string or a regular expression.
    Grep “string” filename(s)

    HOME
    User’s home directory

    if operator
    The if operator allows conditional operator

    If expression; then commands; fi
    if … then…else… fi
    $ if; then

    commands
    efile; then

    commands
    fi

    kill
    used to stop background processes

    in
    used to link files. A duplicate of a file is created with another name

    LOGNAME
    displays user’s login name

    ls
    Lists the files in the current directory

    Some of the available options are:
    -l gives a long listing
    -a displays all file{including hidden files

    lp
    used to print data on the line printer.
    Lp [options] filename(s)

    mesg
    The mesg command controls messages received on a terminal.
    -n does not allow messages to be displayed on screen
    -y allows messages to be displayed on screen

    mkdir
    used to create directories

    more
    The more command is used to dispay data one screenful at a time.
    More [filename]

    mv
    Mv (move) moves a file from one directory to another or simply changes filenames. The command takes filename and pathnames as source names and a filename or exiting directory as target names.
    mv [source-file] [target-file]

    news
    The news command allows a user to read news items published by the system administrator.

    ni
    Displays the contents of a file with line numbers

    passwd
    Changes the password

    paste
    The paste command joins lines from two files and displays the output. It can take a number of filenames as command line arguments.
    paste file1 file2

    PATH
    The directories that the system searches to find commands

    pg
    Used to display data one page (screenful) at a time. The command can take a number of filenames as arguments.
    Pg [option] [filename] [filename2]…..

    pipe
    Operator (1) takes the output of one commands as input of another command.

    ps
    Gives information about all the active processes.

    PS1
    The system prompt

    pwd
    (print working directory) displays the current directory.

    rm
    The rm (remove) command is used to delete files from a directory. A number of files may be deleted simultaneously. A file(s) once deleted cannot be retrieved.
    rm [filename 1] [filename 2]…

    sift command
    Using shift $1becomes the source string and other arguments are shifted. $2 is shifted to $1,$3to $2 and so on.

    Sleep
    The sleep command is used to suspend the execution of a shell script for the specified time. This is usually in seconds.

    sort
    Sort is a utility program that can be used to sort text files in numeric or alphabetical order
    Sort [filename]

    split
    Used to split large file into smaller files
    Split-n filename
    Split can take a second filename on the command line.

    su
    Used to switch to superuser or any other user.

    sync
    Used to copy data in buffers to files

    system0
    Used to run a UNIX command from within a C program

    tail
    The tail command may be used to view the end of a file.
    Tail [filename]

    tar
    Used to save and restore files to tapes or other removable media.
    Tar [function[modifier]] [filename(s)]

    tee
    output that is being redirected to a file can also be viewed on standard output.

    test command
    It compares strings and numeric values.
    The test command has two forms : test command itself If test ${variable} = value then
    Do commands else do commands

    File
    The test commands also uses special operators [ ]. These are operators following the of are interpreted by the shell as different from wildcard characters.
    Of [ -f ${variable} ]

    Then
    Do commands
    Elif
    [ -d ${variable} ]

    then
    do commands

    else
    do commands

    fi
    many different tests are possible for files. Comparing numbers, character strings, values of environment variables.

    time
    Used to display the execution time of a program or a command. Time is reported in seconds.
    Time filename values

    tr
    The tr command is used to translate characters.
    tr [-option] [string1 [string2]]

    tty
    Displays the terminal pathname

    umask
    Used to specify default permissions while creating files.

    uniq
    The uniq command is used to display the uniq(ue) lines in a sorted file.
    Sort filename uniq

    until
    The operator executes the commands within a loop as long as the test condition is false.

    wall
    Used to send a message to all users logged in.
    # /etc/wall message

    wait
    the command halts the execution of a script until all child processes, executed as background processes, are completed.

    wc
    The wc command can be used to count the number of lines, words and characters in a fine.
    wc [filename(s)]
    The available options are:
    wc –[options] [filename]
    -1
    -w
    -c
    while operator
    the while operator repeatedly performs an operation until the test condition proves false.

    $ while
    Ø do

    commands
    Ø done

    who
    displays information about all the users currently logged onto the system. The user name, terminal number and the date and time that each user logged onto the system.
    The syntax of the who command is who [options]

    write
    The write command allows inter-user communication. A user can send messages by addressing the other user’s terminal or login id.
    write user-name [terminal number]
    Windows geht.net Enterprise Sever

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