Bootsectors
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Thread: Bootsectors

  1. #1
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jun 2003
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    772

    Bootsectors

    Original here: http://www.elhalf.com/bootsectors.txt
    ---------------
    Bootsectors
    ---------------
    -[El Half - http://www.elhalf.com]-



    Introduction
    ----------------

    When you power on your computer the BIOS does a Power On Self-Test
    (POST). It then locates the first bootable drive (as defined
    by the boot sequence in the BIOS menu).
    Then the first sector on that drive is read (cylinder 0, sector 0)
    and the instruction pointer (IP) is moved to the start of this code.
    The boot sector has just been loaded into memory.
    It is located at: 0000:7C00

    All this is done in 16-bit real mode.
    16-bit meaning that we have a 16-bit address space and thus we can
    address only up to up to 0xFFFFF bytes (1024 kb) in memory.
    Real mode means that we have no restrictions (obviously).

    When writing a bootsector you have to keep in mind that you cannot
    use OS interrupts. But we can use int 10h which is offered by the BIOS
    to do something "useful"!

    A bootsector always has to end with 0x55AA. In your code you will
    define 0xAA55 because of the little/big endian thingy (don't know
    which is applicable here...aren't I lame?)

    Another thing to take in account is the size, make sure it doesn't
    exceed 512 bytes. A real OS would obviously load an external kernel.
    To do that you first need to write a filesystem, that which is not
    covered in this text.


    The code
    -----------

    This can be assembled with Netwide Assembler, which can be obtained freely
    here: http://nasm.sourceforge.net

    To assemble:
    *****************************
    C:\>nasm -o boot.bin boot.asm
    *****************************

    You can write the following code to a floppy by using elhalf.com/rawrite.exe
    or if you don't trust me:
    *****************************
    C:\>debug boot.bin
    -w 100 0 0 1
    -q
    *****************************

    Restart your computer and boot from the floppy

    Code:
    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
    
    ;BUG?: the string may get multiple times, or after the first time a B may appear
    ;I don't know why this is, if you know, please tell me ;)
    
    [BITS 16]
    [ORG 0x7C00]            ;BIOS puts us here
    ;16-bit real mode
    
    jmp start
    
    msg db 'Booting a shitty program',13,10,0
    
    displaymsg:
    lodsb                   ; load si string into al, similar (not entirely) to mov byte ptr al,ds:[si]
    or al, al
    jz return
    mov ah,0eh              ; output character on screen function
    mov bx,0007h            ; bl value = attribute (back/foreground colour), bh = pagenumber
    int 10h                 ; we can't use OS interrupt obviously so we call int 10h
    jmp displaymsg          ; loop
    
    return:
    ret
    
    start:
    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
    ;let's make a stack;     Stack is not used so you can leave it away but I thought
    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;     I'd include this because it is a common thing...
    
    cli                     ;disable interrupts
    mov ax, 9000h           ;we can't give this value directly to ss
    mov ss, ax              ;location of stack
    mov sp, 0h              ;stack pointer = 0
    sti                     ;enable interrupts again
    ;end of stack creation
    
    mov si,msg      
    call displaymsg         ; display message
    
    
    times 510-($-$$) db 0   ; we need to fill so the binary image will be 512 bytes
                            ; $ = start of instruction
                            ; $$ = start of program
    dw 0xAA55               ; fills last 2 bytes with 0xAA55 which makes this a valid bootsector
    
    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
    The above sentences are produced by the propaganda and indoctrination of people manipulating my mind since 1987, hence, I cannot be held responsible for this post\'s content - me

    www.elhalf.com

  2. #2
    very very nice! i just wanted to start a thread about how the bootsector works and how you can write your own bootloader...
    so if you (or anyone reading this) might have more info/tutorials about the bootsector it would be highly appreciated

  3. #3
    AO Ancient: Team Leader
    Join Date
    Oct 2002
    Posts
    5,197
    Since this is a tutorial.....

    How is this supposed to benefit me?

    What practical use is it?
    Don\'t SYN us.... We\'ll SYN you.....
    \"A nation that draws too broad a difference between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards, and its fighting done by fools.\" - Thucydides

  4. #4
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jun 2003
    Posts
    772
    What practical use is it?
    It's the very basic of an OS....

    Even if it had no practical use...why the hell does everything have to have practical use, is simply 'knowledge' not enough?
    The above sentences are produced by the propaganda and indoctrination of people manipulating my mind since 1987, hence, I cannot be held responsible for this post\'s content - me

    www.elhalf.com

  5. #5
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2004
    Posts
    620
    Well, my ASM knowlege is very limited, but it was an interesting read nonetheless

    Nice job

    mjk

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