I hid it since you said you wanted fresh faces in on this.

From rote memory, which may be inaccurate to a pont:

A short circuit is when power passes directly from path to return or ground, completely bypassing the load (light, outlet, etc.) It causes a condition called 'overcurrent' which generates much heat and can cause fires. Fuses and breakers are devices intended to halt this when it occurs, using a thermally activated 'switch' which either breaks (in the case of fuses) or separates (trips - in breakers) when overcurrent is sensed. There is no 'long circuit' referred to in electrical theory, but by definition I would call it the opposite of a short circuit, or a circuit which is functioning as it is intended.

Resistance is anything that causes a voltage drop within a direct current circuit. These drops are measurable using Ohm's law. They can be motors, lights, relays, or anything that requires power to function. In the broadest sense, they are anything that can be put into an electrical circuit other than the power supply, including inductors and capacitors although these are treated somewhat differently in calculating the circuit values.

Impedence is resistance within an alternating current circuit. The formulas for calculating impedence are quite different from those used to calculate resistance, which is why there is a differentiation. The formula for impedence takes into account the fluctuations of voltage on each phase (sine wave AC), and the phase differential between phases of AC. Impedence, like resistance, is measured in Ohms.

Couple more cool add-ons:

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, merely altered in form.
(law of conservation of mass and energy)

There is no such thing as a 100% efficient machine.
(2nd law of thermodynamics)

So read in order, and combining the two.... You cannot win, You cannot lose, and you cannot break even.