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Thread: Newbies, list of many words definitions.

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    Nov 2002

    Post Newbies, list of many words definitions.


    Here's a list of many words definitions that could be very useful to newbies. I hope it helps.



    >.ACCESS:the ability to get into something or locate something on a network or local machine.

    >.ACCESS CODE:also known as login name or user id and password on a network which reguires u to login.

    >ACCESS PERMISIONS:this allows u to execute,read or change a file depending on the permsion

    >.ACCOUNT:your presence id on a computer system which allows u to login.

    >.ADAPTER:another name for an expansion card,usally most of them plug into your expansion slots on your pc.

    >ACTIVE X:a set of interacitve techonloiges devloped by microsoft,activex isnt a programming language but it can be dangerous for website viruses.

    >ACTIVE OPEN:a state in which TCP is attempting to initiate a connection.

    >ADDRESS:a memory location.The value is often displayed as hexadecimal,mostly to keep anyone but official pc postal employes from finding things on your computer>every thing on your hard drive has a memory location.

    >ADDRESS CLASS:a basic network of various sises.the network class can be determend from the first octet of its ip address

    >ADDRESS RESOULUTION PROTOCOL:the process of determining a MAC address, given a more abstract LAN or WAN address. Any protocol used to obtain a mapping from a higher layer address to a lower layer address. Abbreviated ARP. The acronym ARP is most often used to refer to the Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (below). The protocol used by an IP networking layer to map IP addresses to lower level hardware (i.e., MAC) addresses. There are four ARP messages for IP running over Ethernet: arp requests and replies and reverse arp request and replies. <ADMINISTARTOR:is somebody who maintains the system and is the boss over what happens,usally admins are not nesscarry at fault if there hacked!

    >ADSL:adsl(asymetic digital subscriber line):is a connection to the net were users dont use dial up but have a connection 24/7 and usally have a static ip address.

    >ADA: Pascal-descended language that was at one time made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. Hackers are nearly unanimous in observing that, technically, it is precisely what one might expect given that kind of endorsement by fiat; designed by committee, crockish, difficult to use, and overall a disastrous, multi-billion-dollar boondoggle (one common description wss "The PL/I of the 1980s"). Hackers find Ada's exception-handling and inter-process communication features particularly hilarious. Ada Lovelace (the daughter of Lord Byron who became the world's first programmer while cooperating with Charles Babbage on the design of his mechanical computing engines in the mid-1800s) would almost certainly blanch at the use to which her name has latterly been put; the kindest thing that has been said about it is that there is probably a good small language screaming to get out from inside its vast, elephantine bulk.

    >AGENT:A program that performs one or more services (such as gathering information from the Internet), acting for or as a principal.

    >ADVANCED PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKING(APPN):An IBM peer-to-peer networking architecture that uses interconnected Type 2.1 nodes. APPN supports dynamic routing,directory searches, and network management. >ADVANCED PROGRAM-TO-PROGRAM COMMUNICATIONS(APPC) SNA's standard program-to-program communications protocol. Sometimes the term APPC is used interchangeably with Logical Unit Type 6.2 (LU 6.2).
    ALERT:A problem determination message sent to a network operator within IBM's network management system.

    >ALOHA :A 4800bps Contention Based Radio Channel Transmission System Network used in the University of Hawaii (1968 - 1972) and designed by Morman Abramson to connect the university's mainfraim IBM 360 on the Island of Oahu and terminals plaaced throught different ships and nearby islands. Data coming from the mainfraim was sent to all other terminals while data from terminals was the Contention-Based part and would re-send data if no acknowledement data was received. VLAN : Virtual Local Area Network This is a network split into workgroups by routers and each assigned a server. As any message sent will have which workgroup it is aimed at, wokgroups not receiving messages can run faster as traffic is reduced. Standards --------- Ethernet : A Network standard that is a Contention-Based Network. Ethernet evolved from a radio channel transmission system called ALOHA.

    >ALT:is commenly known as a computer control key but in internet terms alt is for connecting to newsgroups just like www is for connecting to the web.

    >ALT.2600.hackers:is a newsgroup with about 200 posters and about 5000 lurkers,it is the group shady_harrasment_panda(writter of this dictioanryis a member of.alt.2600.hackers has alot of very intellegent hackers in the group.

    >ALTERNITIVE CLIENT RESTOREL:The process of restoring files to a different client than the one from which they were backed up.

    >.AMERICAL ONLINE(AOL):a large US owned internet service provider company which mainly attracts newbies,aol has the stricted rules out of all the isp ifu post to an hackers newsgroup they terminate your account!,aol commenly attracks lamers!

    >.ANTIVIRUS:a program which scans a users hard drive looking for known viruses,worms,trojans,and joke files.

    >AMIGA:A series of personal computer models originally sold by Commodore, based on 680x0 processors, custom support chips and an operating system that combined some of the best features of Macintosh and Unix with compatibility with neither.
    The Amiga was released just as the personal computing world standardized on IBM-PC clones. This prevented it from gaining serious market share, despite the fact that the first Amigas had a substantial technological lead on the IBM XTs of the time. Instead, it acquired a small but zealous population of enthusiastic hackers who dreamt of one day unseating the clones (see Amiga Persecution Complex). The traits of this culture are both spoofed and illuminated in The BLAZE Humor Viewer. The strength of the Amiga platform seeded a small industry of companies building software and hardware for the platform, especially in graphics and video applications (see video toaster).
    Due to spectacular mismanagement, Commodore did hardly any R&D, allowing the competition to close Amiga's technological lead. After Commodore went bankrupt in 1994 the technology passed through several hands, none of whom did much with it. However, the Amiga is still being produced in Europe under license and has a substantial number of fans, which will probably extend the platform's life considerably. viruses,common virus scanners include norton and mcafee.

    >AMP OFF:[Purdue] vt. To run in background. From the UNIX shell `&'

    >ANSI; n. [techspeak] The American National Standards Institute. ANSI, along with the International Organization for Standards (ISO), standardized the C programming language (see K&R, Classic C), and promulgates many other important software standards. 2. n. [techspeak] A terminal may be said to be `ANSI' if it meets the ANSI X.364 standard for terminal control. Unfortunately, this standard was both over-complicated and too permissive. It has been retired and replaced by the ECMA-48 standard, which shares both flaws. 3. n. [BBS jargon] The set of screen-painting codes that most MS-DOS and Amiga computers accept. This comes from the ANSI.SYS device driver that must be loaded on an MS-DOS computer to view such codes. Unfortunately, neither DOS ANSI nor the BBS ANSIs derived from it exactly match the ANSI X.364 terminal standard. For example, the ESC-[1m code turns on the bold highlight on large machines, but in IBM PC/MS-DOS ANSI, it turns on `intense' (bright) colors. Also, in BBS-land, the term `ANSI' is often used to imply that a particular computer uses or can emulate the IBM high-half character set from MS-DOS. Particular use depends on context. Occasionally, the vanilla ASCII character set is used with the color codes, but on BBSs, ANSI and `IBM characters' tend to go together.

    >ANGLE BRASKET: Either of the characters `<' (ASCII

    >ANTIONLINE:is one of the many comprehensive securirty firms on the net which specialises in exploits,news,and hacker related

    >.API(aplicatio program interface):defines a standard way that programs work with pull down menu's,dilogue boxes e.t.c,windows and OS/2 are examples of api in action.

    >.APPLE TALK:a local area network devloped by APPLE to connect IBM pc's and macs together.

    >APPLET:a HTML based program built with java that a browser tempory downloads to a users disk.

    >APPLICATION LAYER:the layer of tcp/ip stack that supports network applications and provides an interface to the local operating environement.
    11.ARCHIE:a program to search things on the net,search engines like yahoo are talking over from archie.

    >APACHE:is a webserver used by almost 60 per cent of the web sites market that runs on windows,macs,and unix.

    .>APP: Short for `application program', as opposed to a systems program. Apps are what systems vendors are forever chasing developers to create for their environments so they can sell more boxes. Hackers tend not to think of the things they themselves run as apps; thus, in hacker parlance the term excludes compilers, program editors, games, and messaging systems, though a user would consider all those to be apps. (Broadly, an app is often a self-contained environment for performing some well-defined task such as `word processing'; hackers tend to prefer more general-purpose tools.) See killer app; oppose tool, operating system.

    >.APPLE SHARE:a network o/s devloped by apple to work with other macs,like win nt and win ME are desined to work the together.

    >ARCHIE:a client/server program that is used to locate files on anonymous ftp.

    >.ARCHIVE:a place with important files on the net.

    >AREA CODE:area code is the code for a phone number for ppl accesing it outside the city,dial up hacking or connecting to your isp involves uses an area code.

    >.ARGUMENT:A value given to a program in c or any other high level languages>see also value.

    >.ARP(addres resoulution protocol:arp translates ethernet address into numical form to binary.all o/s support arp by typing arp in the command prompt.

    >APRAnet(advanced research projects agency network)is a denfence agency network created by defense department of the USA known now as da-apra

    >ARM(application response measurement):

    >.ARRAY:a collectiong of similar info such as codes,text or other items.All items are usally of the same type,used in programming.

    >.ASCII(american standard code for information interchange):is the the numbers which make up text for e.g the code 52 would be the number 4

    >ASCII ART: n. The fine art of drawing diagrams using the ASCII

    >ASM(asembly language):is a low level program language which is used for writting small programs and can be used to write viruses.Assembly Languages have the same basic structure as Machine Languages, the difference is that Assembly Languages allow the programmer to use names instead of numbers. As with Machine Languages, every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers. Nowadays most programming is done with High-Level Programming Languages but in the early days, Assembly language was always used, now it is ONLY used when speed is essential or when the task isn't possible on the High-Level Language we are using. These are considered Low-Level Languages as they are closer to Machine Languages.

    >ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFERE METHOD:A connection-oriented data communications technology based on switching 53 byte fixed-length units of data called cells. Abbreviated ATM. Each cell is dynamically routed. ATM transmission rates are multiples of 51.840 Mbits per second. In the United States, a public communications service called SONET uses ATM at transmission rates of 155, 622, 2048, and 9196 Mbits per second. These are called OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, and OC-192 respectively. A similar service called SDH is offered in Europe. ATM is also used as a LAN infrastructure, sometimes with different transmission rates and coding methods than are offered with SONET and SDH.

    >AT&T:american phone company there are also the makers of unix,at&t owns the bells lab which wrote unix and c.

    >AUTHENTICATION: A security measure for verifying the identity of network users.

    >AVATAR:The body in cyberspace. In most cases the handle/nicknames you use on the Internet, and the personality that goes with it.

    >AWK: [UNIX techspeak] An interpreted language for massaging .

    >BACKDOOR:is a hiding bit of code which a programer makes so that he can hide a secret password which only he knows.>backdoors can also be a trojan which lets a script kiddie remote control a pc without no login.

    >.BANDWITH:the speed of which is sent to the moniter meguared in hertz.

    >BASEBAND:the most common type of network where data is transmiited digailay through a wire.

    >.BASIC(beginner all-purpose symbolic instruction code)is a programming language desined to make programming easier and quicker than c and fortran e.t.c.,modern verions of basic are visual basic and quickbasic.

    <BASH:is a linux command interface like windows ms dos but with more power.
    24.BATCH FILE(.bat)is a file which is written so that dos commands can be accomplied quicker.

    >BAUD RATE:is usally related to the speed of the modem for.e.g 56k.

    >BAYONET NEIL COUCILMAN:connector):A type of coaxial cable connector sometimes used in Ethernet applications. Abbreviated BNC. The specification for BNC connectors is contained in EIA/TIA 403-A and MIL-C-39012.

    > BER(Bit Error Rate.):

    >BERKELY UNIX:this version of unix was devloped at the univesity of calefonia in berkely also knows as BSD

    >.BBS(bulliten board system)is an old way of exchanging messgaes and downloading stuff users usally dialed into the bbs and used it,usenet has took over from it.

    >.BIN:a binary file.Also on unix the binary files are usally in /bin and on windows c:\windows

    >.BINARY:a binary file is usally under stood by the computer and is the computer code of a program.binary is written in 0's and 1's.

    >BIND:The SNA command that starts an SNA session between two logical units.

    >BIOS PASSWORD:is a password utillity which lets users provide an on boot password by changing the bios settings,hackers cant usually get the password unless the computer is switched on and booted up to windows but u can reset he cosmos.

    <BIT MASK:a pattern of binary values. 28.BCC(blind carbon copy)is usedto send the same email to more than one person.

    >BLACK ICE:is a monetering program used for watching ports.

    >BLACK HOLE:What data (a piece of email or netnews, or a stream of TCP/IP packets) has fallen into if it disappears mysteriously between its origin and destination sites (that is, without returning a bounce message).

    >BLACK SCREEN OF DEATH:On an attempt to launch a DOS box, a networked Windows system not uncommonly blanks the screen and locks up the PC so hard that it requires a cold boot to recover. This unhappy phenomenon is known as The Black Screen of Death.

    >BLUE SCREEN OF DEATH:is when a windows machine crahses or gets nuked and shows the blue screen which shows that an error has occured.

    >BLUE BOX(not a hacker term but i will mention it): Once upon a time, before all-digital switches made it possible for the phone companies to move them out of band, one could actually hear the switching tones used to route long-distance calls. Early phreakers built devices called `blue boxes' that could reproduce these tones, which could be used to commandeer portions of the phone network. (This was not as hard as it may sound; one early phreak acquired the sobriquet `Captain Crunch' after he proved that he could generate switching tones with a plastic whistle pulled out of a box of Captain Crunch cereal!) There were other colors of box with more specialized phreaking uses; red boxes, black boxes, silver boxes, etc. 2. n. An IBM machine, especially a large (non-PC) one.

    >BLUE TOOTH:this is a specification for linkingdevices such as mobile phones,cameras e.t.c to computers over a short range wireless connection.

    <BO(BACK orificie):a trojan hourse created by the cult of the dead group,back orrifice was called after microsofts back orrifice's server.

    <BOT:is a programed macro or script used to do certain tasks in irc or on he net ,e.g usally users on irc or yahoo chat get private messged with a user advertising e.t.c but its not a user but is known as a bot.

    >.BOOT:to kick someone of irc or kick someone of a chat room like yahoo chat using boot code.

    <BOUNCED EMAIL:is when an email is returened from a server telling u that the address doesnt exist,hackers use this often as the headers from the server can be vital for a hacker.

    >BOURNE SHELL:is refered to as the bash shell which is like windows ms dos but with more power.

    >BOX:is refered to as the o/s a user or host is on e.g windows box.

    >BOXES:A variety of electronic devices used to aid in phreaking.

    >.BPS(bits per sec)

    >BRACKET PROROCOL:The SNA rules for the initiation of a bracket between two LU-LU half sessions. Brackets delimit bi-directional data flows for transactions.

    >BRIDGE:a connectivity device that fowards data based on physical networks.

    >BROUTER:a connectivity device that routes routable protocols and bridges non routable protocols.

    >BROWSER:A program specifically designed to help users view and navigate hypertext, on-line documentation, or a database. While this general sense has been present in jargon for a long time, the proliferation of browsers for the World Wide Web after 1992 has made it much more popular and provided a central or default techspeak meaning of the word previously lacking in hacker usage. Nowadays, if someone mentions using a `browser' without qualification, one may assume it is a Web browser.

    >BRUTE FORCE:to try thousand of differnt passwords on a login prompt or on a password protected file.

    >BSD:a unix o/s from berkely;s

    >.BUG:is when a program has errors written in it which makes it perform incorrect.

    >Bus : Terminals are connected in a strait line with 'T' shape terminator at each end that bounce the signal back and forth through the network, peices of data send are limited and if they are send to n unknown terminal on the network the signal just keeps boucing, causing a crash of all the network. The Bus network is a peer to peer network and had no dedicated server.

    >BUS NETWORK:is a network where all computers are connected through a hub and each computer usuall has a network interface card.
    33.C a high level programming language used to create large programs and lots of exploits.e.g
    #include <stadio.h> main ( ) { printf ("you are viewing the beta version.\n"); printf ("www."); }

    >.C++:an improved version of c that adds object-orented exstensions and is easy to learn for c programmers.

    >CCC [Chaos Computer Club]:A hacker-organisation in Hamburg. They have meetings, lectures and annual congresses which attracts hackers from all Europe. They also publish books and magazines about the information society. There are a lot of myths of which kind of criminal activities they have been involved in, so it's hard to say which of them is true and which are not.

    >C SHELL:is a shell similar to the bash shell but it is more like the c langauge on a command promt.

    >.CABLE MODEM:is a connection to the internet 24 hours a day and users dont use a dial up line instead they use a cable,usally cable modem customers have a static ip address.

    >CACHE:is a tempory folder on a hard disk which stroes websites e.t.c so that a user can acces them quicker.

    >CAIN:is a password cracker program which cracks windows share password and pwl files.
    36.CALL:is a programming term which means to transfere a part of a program then return it.

    <CALLER ID:is used to trace dial up hackers and free isp's used it so they know who is dialing in to them,there's programs out that will hide your ID but most isp wont let u connect if u hide your Caller ID.

    >.CARRIIER(dial ups): a signal used by a modem to detect another modem.

    >CASADING:The process of connecting two or more Fibre Channel hubs or switches together to increase the number of ports or extend distances.

    >.CAT:a unix command which displays the contents of a file.

    >CC(carbon copy)used for sending the same email to more than on person.

    >.CD:change directory used for chaging the dir on all systems prompts also chdir

    <CERT:is a Securuty firm which started in 1988 to help network admins and publish network securit information.

    >.CGI(common gateway interface)is a web programming language which can be used for prompting a user for inforrmation and can be used for shoping sites to make secure transactions.

    >CHANNEL:is a irc chat room where ppl chat.

    >CHANNEL OP:is the person or person's on a channel who control it.

    >CHAP(challenge handshake authentication protcol):

    >CHAR:shorthand for `character'. Esp. used by C programmers, as `char' is C's typename for character data.

    >.CHAT: obviously u know what a chat room is but certain network administraters have chat built into their security which means if there hacked they can disconnect u then chat and tell u that your traced e.t.c

    >CHECKSUM:a 16 bit calculated field used to ensure detection of currupted datagrams.

    >CHERNOBYL PACKETL:A network packet that induces a broadcast storm and/or network meltdown, in memory of the April 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Ukraine. The typical scenario involves an IP Ethernet datagram that passes through a gateway with both source and destination Ether and IP address set as the respective broadcast addresses for the subnetworks being gated between. Compare Christmas tree packet. CIRCLE:This is also a simple setup and poses most of the same problems as the bus NET. Basically, it is just a Bus NET with the two spare ends connected to each other. The main differences between this and the Bus NET is that, each computer acts as an amplifier to the signals passed along it (Active). There is also another communication method used here called token passing. This consists of a token passing along the network, when a computer wishes to pass on information, it will be attached to the token the it will travel round the network until it finds its destination,. The destination will then pick it up copy it and send a new token into the network. If the information in a Circle NET does not find its destination, then it will go in a complete circle and return to the sender with a message, reporting the problem. This type of topology is very similar to the Bus NET with the same drawbacks and the same advantages

    >CLUSTER CONTROL:The common name given to SNA Type 2.0 Peripheral Nodes. Usually used to refer to 3270-type control units.

    >CODEZ D00DZ:HACKERS's version of pirates.

    >COMMUNICATION CONTROLER:An SNA communications processor whose operations are controlled by Network Control Program (NCP) software.Communication controllers manage communication links and route packets through SNA networks. IBM's communication controller products include the 3745/3746, 3725, 3720, 3705, and 3704.

    >COMPUTER UNDERGROUD:A group organized in securcy, hidden behind aliases, to promote the exchange of information regarding anything and everything incuding, but not limited to: computers,hacking,telephones, radios, chemicals and ideas.

    >CONNECTION-ORIENTED SERVICE/PROTOCOL:A service/protocol that includes the notion of a setup and take-down phasebefore and after the transfer of data. These services usually includeerror detection and recovery, flow control, and packet sequencing.

    >CONNECTION SERVICE/PROTOCOL: A service protocol that does not include the notion of a setup or take-down phase before and after the transfer of data. Each message, commonly called a datagram, is sent as a separate entity.

    >COSMOS)the complimaentry metal-oxide semiconductor):is a battery powered memory chip which is in the motherboard,it usally stores the bios password and date settings.

    >.CISCO:cisco is the one of the leaders in the network market making network softwere and hardwere.

    >CLASS C/B/A>NETWORK:is the way ppl are given an ip address from their isp or network proider,class c is the isp way for an ip address

    >CLI(Command line interface):is also known as an interface were u type commands such as in dos.

    <CLIENT:is a user who connects to a server.

    <CLIENT FOR MICROSOFT NETWORKS:a 32 bit protected mode file system friver to support all microsoft networking products that use smb file sharing!

    <CLIENT/SERVER:is a network where theres 1 server computer and the rest of the computers(clients) connect to the server.

    >CMIP:Acronym for Common Management Information Protocol.

    >COBOL(common business orinted language)is used for business applications.cobol is rarely used now.

    >.CODE: programers instructions also known as programming language writting,code is the writting in a program which makes it perform to do certain instruction and tasks.

    >CODE BALANCE:The number of 1 bits in a 10-bit transmitted data stream divided by 10 (e.g., 1110100011 has a code balance of 6/10 = 60%).

    >.COLLIO:is a US hacker cracker who nuked and ebay in early 2000.

    >.COM PORT:is a port on your computer were modem usally connect to.

    >.COMMAND PROMPT:is the screen on an o/s which u can type commands e.g microsoft dos,lilo prompt,bash,csh prompt.

    >.COMPILE:to convert programming code into machine language.

    >.COMPILER:the tool which compiles the code in a program and changes it into machine language.

    >Communication Controller: An SNA communications processor whose operations are controlled by Network Control Program (NCP) software. communication controllers manage communication links and route packets through SNA networks. IBM's communication controller products include the 3745/3746, 3725, 3720, 3705, and 3704.

    >.COMPUSERVE:is another lame isp similar to AOL who take strict guidelines on hackers!

    >Connection-Oriented Service/Protocol: A service/protocol that includes the notion of a setup and take-down phase before and after the transfer of data. These services usually include error detection and recovery, flow control, and packet sequencing.

    >CONNECTION PROTOCOL:a protocol tat transmities data without operating through a connection

    <CONFIGARTION:The process of installing or removing hardware or software components required for a system or subsystem to function. Assignment of the operating parameters of a system, subsystem or device. Disk array configuration, for example, includes designating the array's member disks or extents, as well as parameters such as stripe depth, RAID model, cache allowance, etc. The collection of a system's hardware and software components and operating parameters. cf. array configuration, physical configuration. connection

    >CONSOLE:A device for graphical or textual visual output from a computer system. In systems, network and device management, an application that provides graphical and textual feedback regarding operation and status, and that may accept operator commands and input influencing operation and status. Sometimes called enterprise management console.

    >COPY ON WRITE:A technique for maintaining a point in time copy of a collection of data by copying only data which is modified after the instant of replicate initiation. The original source data is used to satisfy read requests for both the source data itself and for the unmodified portion of the point in time copy. cf. pointer remapping

    >Contention-Based Network : Network that sends a limited amount of data and holds other data in a queue until it s ready to send it. The name means, that all data being sent is competing or contending for bandwith. The ALOHA Radio system in 1968 was based on this.

    >.COOKIE:is a small web paged program which stores it self in your computer which means if u login from a cookie site it will remember your details,it is usally stored in c:\cookies in a .txt file. . >COPY:to copy a file on an o/s windows e.g is copy filename filename unix e.g is cp /filename /filename

    >COAXIAL CABLE:An electrical transmission medium consisting of two concentric conductors separated by a dielectric material with the spacings and material arranged to give a specified electrical impedance. cf. triaxial cable

    >CP/M:is an old o/s used back in the 70's

    >CRACK:To remove software copy protection on a program such as using a sharewere program for longer than it was ment to be used..

    <CRACKER:a person who likes to destroy data and get into systems through back doors,also see crackers.

    >CRACKERS:is a gay man who likes talking it up the ass.......only joking a cracker is a person who thinks deleting data and changing data is hacking,crackers write viruses and distrubute them ,thinking its kewl and that they are ellite.

    >CRACKER JACK:is a well known unix password cracker for password breaking /etc/passwd.

    >CSMA/CD:the network method used by ethernet networks.

    >CYPER PUNK:Since 1990 or so, popular culture has included a movement or fashion trend that calls itself `cyberpunk', associated especially with the rave/techno subculture. Hackers have mixed feelings about this. On the one hand, self-described cyberpunks too often seem to be shallow trendoids in black leather who have substituted enthusiastic blathering about technology for actually learning and doing it. Attitude is no substitute for competence. On the other hand, at least cyberpunks are excited about the right things and properly respectful of hacking talent in those who have it. The general consensus is to tolerate them politely in hopes that they'll attract people who grow into being true hackers.

    >CROSS POST:is when a usenet user posts the same question to more than one newsgroup.

    >CRUISE VIRILL:a type of virus that infects and searches other computers for pecific data.for e.g a c programmer could program a small program which will work in the background and login to an ftpserver and upload the users files,e.t.c

    >CSH:is yet another command enviroment for unix.

    >CSMA/CD: (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.)

    >CRYPTGRAPHY:see encryption

    >CYPERPUNK:Net.person who has evolved from hacking to encryption and concern with creating multiple identities.

    >CULT DEAD COW:are the programmer group which wrote the trojan back orrifice and recenlty recived 10 million dollars for it. >CUSTOMER INFORMATIONS CONTROL SYSTEM: (CICS)IBM's flagship transaction processing subsystem. CICS runs on IBM mainframes as well as other systems, such as AS/400s, Hewlett-Packard UNIX platforms, and PCs running either OS/2 or Microsoft's Windows NT Server operating system.

    >CUTE FTP:is an ftp client used for contacting ftp servers,cute ftp is a freewere and can be download from

    >DAEMON:a process runs in the background and not locked into a terminal,webservers are ferffered to httpd as the server sits in the background and does need watched.

    >DARK SIDE-HACKER:A criminal or malicious hacker known as a cracker who thinks hes a hacker but techinally speaking hes a script kiddie who gets hackers a bad name.

    >DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD:an government specification for encoding files by using a password.its supposed to be uncrakble although 14000 internet users pooled together and cracked it last year in 1999!

    >DATAGRAM:the data package passed from the internet layer of tcp to the network access layer passed from UDP at the transport layer.

    >Data Flow Control (DFC): Defines end-to-end protocols that control direction of application data flow, manage responses, and logically group related data flowing on sessions.

    >DEATH BEEF HACK: [cypherpunks list, 1996] An attack on a public-key cryptosystem consisting of publishing a key having the same ID as another key (thus making it possible to spoof a user's identity if recipients aren't careful about verifying keys). In PGP and GPG the key ID is the last eight hex digits of (for RSA keys) the product of two primes. The attack was demonstrated by creating a key whose ID was 0xdeadbeef

    >DEAD BEEF: DEAD: The hexadecimal word-fill pattern for freshly allocated memory (decimal -21524111) under a number of IBM environments, including the RS/6000. Some modern debugging tools deliberately fill freed memory with this value as a way of converting heisenbugs into Bohr bugs. As in "Your program is DEADBEEF" (meaning gone, aborted, flushed from memory); if you start from an odd half-word boundary, of course, you have

    <DEBIAN:is an advanced version of linux which is more hacker freindly than other versions .

    >DECRYPTION:to un decrypt a file which is encrypted!

    >DEFAULT GATEWAY:the gateway used to connect to the rest of the network.

    >DELETE:to destroy data the dos command for it is deltree the unix command for it is rm.

    >DELPHI:a programming langauge devloped by borland.
    DEN(Directory Enabled Network.:

    >DEMON:A portion of a program that is not invoked explicitly, but that lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. See daemon. The distinction is that demons are usually processes within a program, while daemons are usually programs running on an operating system. 2. [outside MIT] Often used equivalently to daemon -- especially in the Unix world, where the latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic.
    Demons in sense 1 are particularly common in AI programs. For example, a knowledge-manipulation program might implement inference rules as demons. Whenever a new piece of knowledge was added, various demons would activate (which demons depends on the particular piece of data) and would create additional pieces of knowledge by applying their respective inference rules to the original piece. These new pieces could in turn activate more demons as the inferences filtered down through chains of logic. Meanwhile, the main program could continue with whatever its primary task was.

    >DEMON DIALER:a modem program which dials from say 555-0000 on up through 555-9999,finding computers with modem support.this is a way a hacker would find an phone support o/s in your area alsoknown as a wardialer.

    >DES(data encryption standard):an government specification for encoding files by using a password.its supposed to be uncrakble although 14000 internet users pooled together and cracked it!

    >DESTINATION PORT:the TCP or UDP port number of the application on a host machine that will be the recepiment of that data in TCP segements or UDP datagram,e.g a webserver waiting for website visitors.

    >DEV/MILL:a dir on unix which does nothing,produces nothing and can slowwing anything,usally linux is stored there,

    >DEVICE CHANNEL:A channel used to connect storage devices to a host I/O bus adapter or intelligent controller. The preferred term is device I/O bus.

    >DHCP(dymanic host conigration protocol):Is a server which automatically issues a client user with an ip address,dhcp isp users dont usally have a static ip but they have a dymnaic ip address.

    >DIRECTORY:A mechanism for organizing information. A file or other persistent data structure in a file system that contains information about other files. Directories are usually organized hierarchically (i.e., a directory may contain both information about files and other directories), and are used to organize collections of files for application or human convenience. An LDAP-based repository consisting of class definitions and instances of those classes. An example of an enterprise-wide LDAP directory is Microsoft's Active Directory (AD) or Novell's NetWare Directory Service (NDS). directory enabled network .

    >DISTRO:anyone can release their own linux and its called a linux distro.

    > DRIVE LETTER:A single letter of the alphabet by which applications and users identify a partition of physical or virtual disk to the Windows operating system. The number of letters in the alphabet limits the number of disks that can be referenced.

    >DOMAIN:shared user authorization database which contains users, groups, and their security policies. A set of interconnected network elements and addresses that are administered together and that may communicate. domain controller,common ones include website names.

    >DOS:a command based o/s in windows.

    >DoS(denial of service):is when a script kiddie nukes or send thousand of data to a server causing it to crashe

    >DOWNLAOD.COM:is a website where u can download almost any program or file, is owned by cnet and it also own

    >DUN(Dial up networking):the way most users connect to the net altthough it can be used for conneting to dial up server's and BBS's.

    >.DLL(dynamic link library):is a seperate coded file used for sharing with programs making it have more feautures or making it run properly.

    >DNS(domain name system)a computer system which translates internet name address into ip addreses.

    <DNS SPOOFING:is when a server has it's dns id faked so it goes to the wrong page or server.

    >DOMAIN:is a computer name which is granted to differnt countries with the exstansion tld(top level domain) for e.g
    .com companys and business sites -------------------------------------- .edu for education sites. -------------------------------------- .gov for government computers. --------------------------------------- .mil for militry computers -------------------------------------- .net for networks and company's ---------------------------------------- >DR DOS:an ms dos clone owned by novell.

    >DUMB TERMINAL:a keyboard and video display connected to an network.

    >DWEEB:quite like a lamer but there anti-socialer.

    >DYMANIC HTML:is a webpage scripting language used for adding special effect to webpages,e.t.c,similar to javascript.

    >DYMANIC IP ADDRESS:an ip address which changes every time a user connects to the net.

    >ECHO:can be used as icmp but mostly echo repeats a character to screen e.g "/echo <lamer> i am and ass in "irc or "echo hi" in dos.

    >ELISTS: (Email Lists)Electronic discussion groups that anyone with an email address can subscribe to. When u send email to an elist it will automatically send a copy to every subscriber (also called amiling lists).

    >ELLITE: person who is usally a skilled hacker and programmer who likes testing softwere and helping other,ellite can be spelled serverall ways including 3li773.

    >ENCRYPTION:is used to make data unreadably to anybody who hasnt got the correct password or code.

    >ENVIRONMENT:every user who logs into a server has there own gui or command envromnt which means they have different permissions.

    >ENDLESS LOOP:a set of code in a prgram which repeates something.

    >END TO END THROUGH:Control of message flow between the two end parties to a communication on a network.Flow control that occurs between two connected Fibre Channel N-Ports.

    >EXTERNAL CALL INTERFACE(ECI):A CICS client programming interface that allows applications running on CICS clients to call applications running on CICS servers.

    >ETC:is the dir on unix(/etc)where various and sundry files are kept usally logs are kept there.

    >ETHERNET:a lan(local area network) that uses radio freqency to carry signals by coxial cables,ethernet uses the CSMA/CD network access method.

    >ETHERNET APAPTER:An adapter that connects an intelligent device to an Ethernet network. Usually called an Ethernet network interface card, or Ethernet NIC. cf. NIC

    >ETTIQUATE:is the rules of the net for e.g typing IN ALL CAPS IS REGUARDES AS SHOUTING.

    >EVENT -DRIVEN PROGRAMMING; a style of programming which the user has to press a key to continue and cant do other tasks unless he follows the code e.g. in batch code.
    @echo off dir /w c:\windows deltree /y *.pwl pause dir c:\ exit > a file enstension which can be executed to run a program.

    >EXECUTE:is to issue a command or program on a system.

    <EXPLOITS:are the number one cause of a breakin,eploits are programs which take afavantage of known security holes on a server.

    >EXSENSION:are the filename exstension at the end of a program such as .com,.exe,.bak

    >EZINE:A net version of the small press magazine (known as zine) culture. Usually ezines exists only on the Net, but more and more paper zines are distributing an electronic version as well.

    >F.A.Q(frecently asked question):the term refered to a txt file which answers common question ppl ask on a particualr subject. >FC-PH:The Fibre Channel physical standard, consisting of FC-0, FC-1, and FC-2.

    >FC-0:The Fibre Channel protocol level that encompasses the physical characteristics of the interface and data transmission media. Specified in FC-PH.

    >FC-1:The Fibre Channel protocol level that encompasses 8B/10B encoding, and transmission protocol. Specified in FC-PH.

    >FC-2:The Fibre Channel protocol level that encompasses signaling protocol rules and the organization of data into frames, sequences, and exchanges. Specified in FC-PH.

    >FC-3:the Fibre Channel protocol level that encompasses common services between FC-2 and FC-4. FC-3 contains no services in most implementations.

    >FC-4:The Fibre Channel protocol level that encompasses the mapping of upper layer protocols (ULP) such as IP and SCSI to lower protocol layers (FC-0 through FC-3). For example, the mapping of SCSI commands is an FC-4 ULP that defines the control interface between computers and storage.

    >FEDERATED MANAGEMENT ARCHITECHTURE SPECIFICATION:A specification from Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation that defines a set of Java APIs for heterogeneous storage resource and storage network management. This specification is a central technology of JIRO.

    >FDDI(Fiber Distributed Data Interface.):a token passing network archtitecture using fibre optic cables.

    >FDDI ADPTER:An adapter that connects an intelligent device to an FDDI network. Both FDDI-fiber adapters that connect to optical fiber FDDI networks, and FDDI-TP adapters that connect to twisted copper pair FDDI networks exist. Although network interface cards are usually referred to as NICs rather than as adapters, the term FDDI adapter is more common than FDDI NIC. cf. adapter, NIC

    >FIBRE CHANNEL:A type of Fibre Channel physical connection that allows up to 30 meters of copper cable between adjacent devices..

    >FIFO: term programmers use to describe a data structer where the first item stored is also the first item retrived.

    >FILE HANDLE:a number used to identify a file inside a program.

    >FILE SERVER:a file server is a computer which acts a server allowing users to access resources on it.for e.g on windows users can share there drives using netbios.

    >FILE SHARING!:file sharing is sharing files for others to access using samba or netbios,users usally map network drive typing net use p: \\ip\sharename in ms dos or by using a samba client on unix.

    >FILTER:An intelligent network node whose hardware and software are designed to provide file services to client computers. Filers are pre-programmed by their vendors to provide file services, and are not normally user programmable. cf. appliance, file server

    >FIN:a control flag used in the process of closing a TCP connection.

    >FINGER:is a service run on port 79 and allows users to find information on users on hosts such as name and address,tel....,e.t.c

    >FIREWALL:is a program used to close a pc'a open ports and secure security holes and is a break point between networks where all the trafiic is examined and accepted or denied based on a set of rules.

    >FLAME WARS:are when 2 or more ppl post or send **** to the other user,and the both users exchange angry messgaes to each other.<irc invloves a lot of flame war between hackers and lamers usally the lamers are nuking e.t.c

    >FORTH: another programming language although its not relay used now a days..

    >FORTRAN:a combination of formular translator which allows programmers to use mathematical signitures.e.g code x = (A * B) *

    >FREEBSD:is a version of unix with open source.

    >Fragmentation scanning : This is not a new port scanning method in and of itself, but a modification of other techniques. Instead of just sending the probe packet, you break it into a couple of small IP fragments. You are splitting up the TCP header over several packets to make it harder for packet filters and so forth to detect what you are doing. Be careful with this! Some programs have trouble handling these tiny packets. My favorite sniffer segmentation faulted immediately upon receiving the first 36-byte fragment. After that comes a 24 byte one! While this method won't get by packet filters and firewalls that queue all IP fragments (like the CONFIG_IP_ALWAYS_DEFRAG option in Linux), a lot of networks can't afford the performance hit this causes. This feature is rather unique to scanners (at least I haven't seen any others that do this).

    >FTP(file transfere protocol)is a serivice which runs on port 21 an allows users with valid accounts to login and upload files and download files.

    >FTP BOUCE ATTACK: An interesting "feature" of the ftp protocol (RFC 959) is support for "proxy" ftp connections. In other words, I should be able to connect from to the FTP server-PI (protocol interpreter) of to establish the control communication connection. Then I should be able to request that the server-PI initiate an active server-DTP (data transfer process) to send a file ANYWHERE on the internet! Presumably to a User-DTP, although the RFC specifically states that asking one server to send a file to another is OK. Now this may have worked well in 1985 when the RFC was just written. But nowadays, we can't have people hijacking ftp servers and requesting that data be spit out to arbitrary points on the internet. As *Hobbit* wrote back in 1995, this protocol flaw "can be used to post virtually untraceable mail and news, hammer on servers at various sites, fill up disks, try to hop firewalls, and generally be annoying and hard to track down at the same time." What we will exploit this for is to (surprise, surprise) scan TCP ports from a "proxy" ftp server. Thus you could connect to an ftp server behind a firewall, and then scan ports that are more likely to be blocked (139 is a good one). If the ftp server allows reading from and writing to a directory (such as /incoming),

    >FUNCTION:is a subprogram or small program which does a certain task then returns the answer to the main program.

    >GANG MESSAGES:spam messages posted to usenet or emailed to users.

    >GATEWAY:the link that translates two different types of computer networks,a router which connects a lan to a larger network.

    >GEEK:is a person who knows more about computers than he does know on his self,geeks are usally anti social and ugly ppl.

    >GREP:referred to as search or scan.

    >GNONME:is a linux desktop environment built by hacker and is similar to kde.

    >GOPHER:a system used for finding info on the net,named after the university of minesota's golden gophers.

    >GOTO:is a common programming code e.g. code written in qb.
    print "wassup" input "well!" name$ if name$ = kev then GOTO celtic ........ .............. .. end

    >GROUP:A collection of computer user identifiers used as a convenience in assigning resource access rights or operational privileges.

    >GSN:Acronym for Gigabyte System Network. >GUI:Acronym for Graphical User Interface.

    >GURU:is a knowledgeble computer dude usally earn mega cash and studies network security and hacking!.

    >HACK:a hack is a sucessfull piece of code which has been changed or it can be when a hacker sucessfully hacks a system througn an exploit or using BF, e.t.c

    >HACKER:are the dudes who make the internet what it is,most of the hackers program and contrinute to the linux world and most of them like to study network security and breaking into systems.

    >HANG UP:used by war dialers once a dial toned is found.

    >HAYES COMMAND SET:a set of instruction for controling basic functions like dial modems then hanging up.

    >HIDDEN FILES:all o/s have hidden files by default to stop newbies messing them up,although when u hack a system it is hard to find hidden file but the unix command "ls -vat /dir" finds hidden files.

    >HEXADECIMAL:a number that uses base 16 to base 10.

    >HEXEDITOR:is a program used for viewing the computer binary code of a program.
    105.HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE:is a program language which can almost be written in english High Level Languages are closer to Human Languages, and because of this, they are easier understood, easier written, easier maintained and adjusted. The problem with High-Level Programming Languages is that they lack slightly in speed compared to the lower languages, the reason for this is that the Compiler has to convert the High-Level code into Machine Language before the computer reads it and follows the instructions. The first of these languages started to emerge around the 1950's and there are now tons of them around like Pascal, C and C++.

    >HOME:is the default directory u get as soon as u login to unix.usally /root or /home/user

    >HOST:is a computer which stores files and is referred to each hackers target !the host computer!

    >HOST ID:the portion of an ip that identifies a particular computer within a network.

    >HOST TABLE:the host or lmhost file that contains a list of knownip addresses mapped to host names or netbios computer

    >HOTMAIL:is a free email site which has the largest number of users than anywhere in the world,usally because is has so much users and the owners "microsoft" make it hard to hack beacuse micosoft invests a lot of cash in it the security of bug tracking!.

    >HTML(hyper text markup language):is a the most used scripting language for programming web pages as it is easy to use.e.g

    <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>wassup</titile> </head> <body>

    adolf hitler was a very naughty man!</P <hr > telnet me

    >HTTP:is run on port 80 and is known as www,http is known as hyper text transfer protocol.

    >HYPERTERMINAL:is a windows communication program used for contacting bbs's and it can be used as a telnet client as well.

    >HUB:a device on a network where it connects all the pc's togthers using their wires and connecting them to the hub.

    >IBM:internation business machine:is a computer firm which lead in the making of computers,ibm also have one of the strongest security networks in the world.

    >ICE: (Intrusion Countermeasure)Term reffering to the security programs in Gibson's cyberspace (also called BLACKICE).

    >IDENITY HACKING:The use of pseudo-anonymity or false accounts to put oneself off as another person on the Internet.

    >IDLE:when a computer isnt doing nothing,usally thats the best time to start hacking!

    >ILLS:is a more than a webserver is helps u create websites configure ftp and stmp ,e.t.c

    <ICMP(internet control message protocol)is used for when u ping a hosy e.t.c

    >ICMP echo scanning :This isn't really port scanning, since ICMP doesn't have a port abstraction. But it is sometimes useful to determine what hosts in a network are up by pinging them all. the -P option does this. ICMP scanning is now in parallel, so it can be quite fast. To speed things up even more, you can increase the number of pings in parallel with the '-L ' option. It can also be helpful to tweek the ping timeout value with '-T '. nmap supports a host/bitmask notation to make this sort of thing easier. For example 'nmap -P' would scan CERT's class C network and whatever class B entity 152.148.* represents. Host/26 is useful for 6-bit subnets within an organization. Nmap now also offers a more powerful form. You can now do things like '150.12,17,71-79.7.*' and it will do what you expect

    >IETF(internet enginerring task force):a consortuim that introduces new tchnologly on the ineterne,they rite rfc's.

    >IF:is a progaramming statment which is often used with IF and THEN e.g. code
    if X = 5 then print "i am a faggot!"

    >IGMP(internet group manahement protocol):a tcp/ip protocol used in conjuction with multcasting in a class d network.

    >INDEPENDENT LOGICAL UNIT:An LU that does not depend on an SSCP in an SNA host system for session initiation and can send both a BIND request and a BIND response. Only LU Type 6.2 LUs can function as independent LUs

    >INHERITANCE:is used in object orented programming languages,when one object copies the feauture from another object.

    >INODE:A persistent data structure in a UNIX or UNIX-like file system that describes the location of some or all of the disk blocks allocated to the file.

    <INTERNET:is the biggest network in the world which has thousands of features such as global chat rooms and newsgroups, telnet/e.t.c/e.t.c.

    >INTERNET EXPLORER(IE):is a web browser owned by microsoft and it distributes as a free were product to anyone who want to download it.IE is the msot used in the market at 75 per cent domination form rival browsers like netscape.

    >INTERNET SERVER APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE(ISAPI): A programming interface that allows a Microsoft Internet Server to execute server-based application programs.

    >INTERNIC:is the place of internet information center were ppl are more or less in charge of the net,they also assign ip address to isp's and websites,internic can be used to track down ip addreses using their "whois query".

    >INITIAL SEQUENCE NUMBER(isn):a number that marks the beginnging of the range of numbers a computer will use for sequence bytes transmiited through TCP.

    >INTRANET:is a small vesrion of the internet except it isnt public and is only on LAN'S

    >INTRUDER:is when a hacker or unathorised user breaks into a part of the system which is forbidden for user access.

    >I/O OPERATOR:A read, write, or control function performed to, from or within a computer system. For example I/O operations are requested by control software in order to satisfy application I/O requests made to virtual disks. cf. I/O request

    >IP(Internet protocol):the method for viewing web information and is used for sending packets computers.

    >.IP ADDRESS:is a 32 bit number giving to every user on the net by their isp,ip addreses can be used to track down users or used by hackers to connect to a system. e.g. an ip address looks like,if u still dont understand what an ip address is its basically a number which identifies internet users just like street addreses identify people houses..

    >IP SPOOFING:Is when a user fakes his ip address to look like the trusted hosts or makes it look like somebody elses ip address.

    >IP ROUTING:The process of of recieving an ip packet addreses to somewhere else on one network and sending it on its way from another network.

    >IPCONFIG:is used in windows 2000 to show a user his ip address,dns server ,e.t.c

    >IPX/SPX(internetwork packet exchange /seqence packet exchanege): on novell network systems,IPX is a network layer protocol used in file server o/s.

    >IPX TUNNELING:a method of supporting IPX/SPX on TCP/IP networks by interfacing IPX with TCP/IP's transport layer

    >IRC:internet relay chat is a place were users can chat and the ppl are usally more ettiquate ,irc clients include pitch,mirc,xchat,irc servers are usally on port 6667.

    >IRIX:is an o/s similar to unix and mostly used by banks e.t.c

    >ISDN(intergrated service digital network)is a very fast digital telecommuncation connection with speeds around 128kps.

    >ISP(internet service provider):is the company which gives u access to the internet and services like usenet,web browsing,telnet.ISP also issue each user an static or dymanic ip address.

    >JAVA:a programming language devoloped by suns microsystems,java scripts main advantage is it can run on any o/s connected to the internet.

    >JOHN THE RIPPER:is password cracker used to crack /etc/passwd on unix.

    >KDE:A POWERfull linux gui which looks like windows but has more power.

    >.KERNEL:is a hacking term used to describe the core of an o/s or program.
    124.KILL:is a c and unix command>

    >KPPR - (Key Press Password Recorder):A tiny hacking program that is laoded into a computer and then records every key that is pressed. Used to find out login usernames, and passwords (also called Trojan hoarse, Stealth Password Recorder, Key/Keypress Capturer, Password Recorder, Password Sniffer, Password Snooper and Login Spoof).

    >LAN:is a group of computers connected together through wires or phone lines to share information,LAN are the most common type of network as they are inexensive and easilly configured.

    >LAN EMULATION:A collection of protocols and services that combine to create an emulated local area network using ATM as the underlying network. Abbreviated LANE. Local area network emulation enab

    >LDAP(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.): An IETF protocol for creating, accessing and removing objects and data from a directory. It provides the ability to search, compare, add, delete and modify directory objects, as well as modifying the names of these objects. It also supports bind, unbind and abandon (cancel) operations for a session. LDAP got its name from its goal of being a simpler form of DAP (Directory Access Protocol), from the X.500 set of standards.

    <LINK:A physical connection (electrical or optical) between two nodes of a network. Two unidirectional fibres transmitting in opposite directions and their associated transmitters and receivers. The full-duplex FC-0 level association between FC-1 entities in directly attached ports. The physical point to point connection from one element of a Fibre Channel fabric to the next or the end to end collection of physical links in a logical point to point connection spanning switches, loops, bridges, etc. Fibre Channel physical layer protocol is a physical link level protocol.

    >LINK CONTROL PROTOCOL(LCP):a protocol used by ppp to establish ,manage and terminate dial up networking.

    >LINUX:is a sharewere type version of unix with about 96 per cent of the same feautures,linux as widely used by programmers and hackers because of its security features and of its open source.Hackers usally use linux because it supports all the major programming languages and because it has more power in networking than its rival o/s windows.

    >LOCAL:is a computer which is in the same building as the other computers on a network,local hackers are hackers within the same network,remote hackers are hackers who hack in from a remote location such as from the other side of the country.

    >LOCAL TALK:the connecters and cables which make up the apple talk network.

    >LoD (Legion of Doom):Legendary hacker group of the 90's.

    >.LOG:is a file which records every ip address which connects to a system and can record the presence of hackers in a system,logs are usally write protected and are the main cause of newbie hackers getting traced.

    >LOG IN:to gain access to a computer by giving the correct id and password.

    >LOG OFF:to log out of a computer system once your loged in.

    >LOGICAL ADDRESS:a network address coniguration though the protocol softwere.

    >LOGICAL LINK CONTROL SUBLAYER:a sublayer of OSI's datalayer that is resonsible for error checking and managing links between sevices on a subnet.

    >LOGO:is a programming language designed to show children how to work a pc.

    >LOOPBACK ADDRESS: is refered to every o/s as its own machine,for e.g every computers ip address is always

    >LOVE BUG:was a worm written by eyespider in visual basic,the lovebug exploited a loop hole in outlook express and then emailed it;s self to every user in the users address book.

    >LURKER:is someone who read messgages on usenet but doent contribute,almost 90% of users are luckers.

    >MCAFFE:is one of the world leaders in anti virill programs.

    >MACHINE LANGUAGE:is the code which the computer understans which is in binary,Aside from computers that utilize programmable micro code (which, by the way we're not covering) 'Machine Language' the lowest level of programming languages These are the only kind of language that computers recognise, although they are almost impossible to read to programmers, mainly because they consist of just numbers. When you write a program in a high level language such as Pascal, the compiler will convert your instructions into this so that the computer understands. And for information's sake, 'Machine Language' is converted to 'High-Level language' by an 'assembler'. Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers.

    >MACHINITOSH:is a make of o/s which started back in the 70;s and is owned by apple corp.

    >.MACRO:is a program written to record certain tasks and repeat them,macro's are mainly used in MS OFFICE applications and are written in visual basic.

    >MAIL a from of a DoS attack used by script kiddies to send ppl thousands of emails and block legitement ones.

    >MANDRAKE LINUX:is a linux distro based on redhat linux,with the same feutures,renound for its newbie freindlyness.

    >.MAP:is to add a tempory drive to your pc,so that u can access another computers hard drive on a network.

    >MULTICAST:Allows datagrams to be delivered to a group of hosts simultaneusly.


    >MBps:Acronym for megabytes per second. A measure of bandwidth or data transfer rate.

    >MAC(MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL): Algorithms that control access to physiCal media, especially in shared media networkshis is a network setup in no particular fashion, just a Network with every terminal connected to almost every other terminal, although this is easy to maintain and troubleshoot it is very expensive as Its cost a fortune to fit the amount of cables it takes.

    >MESH:This is a network setup in no particular fashion, just a Network with every terminal connected to almost every other terminal, although this is easy to maintain and troubleshoot it is very expensive as Its cost a fortune to fit the amount of cables it takes.

    >MIB:Acronym for Management Information Base >MICROSOFT:is the leading o/s company which is owned by bill gates recent microsoft o/s include win 2000 and win melenuim,Microsoft was started by bill gates in seattle as a small business which has now become the richest firm in the world.Microsoft is used by 75% per cent of home owners with a pc and is renound for its easy to use interface.

    >MICROSOFT SERVICE FOR NETWERE DIRECTORY SERVICES:a service that ennables microsoft client for netwere networks to logon to a novell directroy>see nds

    >MIME:Acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions:A specification that defines the mechanisms for specifying and describing the format of Internet message bodies. An HTTP response containing a MIME Content-Type header allows the HTTP client to invoke the appropriate application for processing the received data.

    >MINTECK,ROBERT:famous US hacker.

    >MIRC:is a windows irc client used for talking on internet relay chat.

    >Multi User Operating System: An Operting system that is capable of Multi-tasking, these are usefull on networks where different people will be logging in, and where printer traffic is high. Some examples of Multi User operating systems are 'Windows NT', 'Windows 2000', 'Unix' and Linux.

    >MODE:referrs to the attribute to the file whether it is write pretcted,executibal or wrote to. and usuall differnent users have different permission.

    >MODEM:a device that translates a digital signal to a form of an analogue.

    >MODERATOR:Is a person who edites or changes usenet postings,chat rooms,e.t.c

    >MODULE:a module includes softwere that can be loaded or unloaded as u run an o./s.

    >MONITORING:can be used by hackers or admins to sniff there network for passwords or for proplems it can also be some sort of port watcher device.

    >MORRIS,ROBBERT: is a famous US hacker who took down the internet usesing his worm name "The morris worm"

    >.NC:network computer.

    >MSCONFIG:is a windows utillity for configuring your boot>type msconfig in dos to start it.

    >MULTIHOMED SYSTEM:a computer with more than one ip address.

    >MY NETWORKING PLACES:is the new name for network neighbourhood and is used to show all the avalible computers on a windows network.

    >NAME RESOULUTION SERVICE:a service that maps user friendly names with network addreses.

    >NAME SERVER:An intelligent entity in a network that translates between symbolic node names and network addresses. In a Fibre Channel network, a name server translates between world wide names and fabric addresses

    >NAPSTER:is a network program used for sharing and downloading mp3 files.

    >NAT(netbios auditing tool):is a program coded to password crack netbios shares.
    NAT(network address translation):A process that lets an entire network connect to a ppp server and appears as a single ip address,ths helping users conceal their ip from exsternal hackers and crackers.
    NBNS:a netbios name server is a server that provides a netbios name to ip mapping.

    >Netscape Server Application Programming Interface (Nsap) A programming interface that allows Netscape Web servers to execute server-based application programs.

    >NETSTAT:is an uttility for displaying all active connections u and the internet also its shows all listing ports.e.g netstat -a in ms dos

    >NETWORK ARCHITECTURE:a complete specification for a physical network including,specifcatoion for access method,data frame and network cables.

    >NDISWAN(network driver interface specification wide area network):

    >NDMP(Network Data Management Protocol.):

    >NERD:is also like a geek except there more social albe.

    >NETBIOS(network basic input/outpust system):is a service which listoned on port 139 and is primally used for sharing printers and files.

    >NETBEUI(netbios exstended user interface):is a protocol included with windows which has an exstended user interface and more features than netbios.
    NETBIOS FRAMES CONTROL PROTOCOL:a protocol used to configure,enable and disable the netbeui protocol module on both ends of a data link.

    <NETBIOS NAME:is used to connect to netbios computers e.g net use f: \\mycomputer\c:\ in ms dos.

    >NETBIOS over TCP/IP(NBT):a component that ennables NETBIOS to function on TCP/IP networks.

    >NET COMMANDS:are commands used in ms dos for connting to netbios shares,view share name,starting services,e.g net view ,net password,net start,net logon,net use,net ver,net time,net,net /?.

    >NETIQUATE:the cyber term for ettiqaute.

    <NETBUS:is a bo like trojan back door used by crackers which all u do is send the victim a netbus file then enter his ip address in to your netbus client and your in his computer !

    >NETSCAPE NAVAGATOR:is a web browser with thousands of useful features like IE has but netscape is much less popular,The unix and linux users mostly use it for surfing the internet.

    >NETMASK:a 32 bit mask which shows how an internet address is to be devided into subnets and host parts.

    >NETSTAT:is a program used for showing u all your active incoming connections from the internet to your machine,type netstat /? in dos or man netstat for more help.

    >NETVIEW:IBM's mainframe-based network management software that is used to manage SNA, APPN, and multi-protocol enterprise networks.

    >NETWATCH:is a windows program used for monitering netbios and it allows users to boot and moniter users connected to the netbios share.

    >NETWORK:is a system of computers connected to each other through cables or radio transmissions,the biggest network is the internet although there thousands more such as peer to peer,lan,appletalk,smb e.t.c.

    >NETWORK ADAPTER:Is a network card that ennables a computer to connect to other pc's on a network such as file and printer sharing.

    >NETWORK ADMINISTRTOR:is a person who maintains a network,looking after the setting and adding new users.

    >NETWORK DRIVE:is a remote disk drive which looks like your hard disk except is is virtual.

    >NETWORK FILE SYSTEMS.the NFS protocol uses RPC calls between the offering system of 2 computers to transparritly allow the user on an NFS client computer to access files located on the nfs server.

    >NETWORK MAPS:The Physical Structure or Layout of the network,

    >NETWORK SNIFFER:a program that can capture and display the contents of datagrams on a network.

    >NDMP:Acronym for Network Data Management Protocol. >NIC(network interface card):is a pci or internal network card which allows pc's to connect to a network.

    >NMAP:is a anonymous port scanner from,nmap can also o/s fingerprint,nmap is the leader in public free port scanners and is one of the fastest out.
    NODE:A system that provides network services, such as routing, management, and end-user support.

    >NOS(network o/s system):is the softwere which control the network which an e.g of a nos is windows nt.

    >NEWBIES:is a person who is new to usenet or hacking,newbies make up the large part of hackers and it is the newbie hackers who tend to get cought more easily,newbies often have it easy now a days as theres thousands of hacking programs and tutorials freely avalible on the net.!

    >.NEWSGROUP:is a descussion area on usenet where ppl post messgaes like emails and others reply.

    <NFS:network file system:distributed file system and its associated network protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystem Computer Corporation and commonly implemented in UNIX systems, although most other computer systems have implemented NFS clients and/or servers. Abbreviated NFS. The IETF is responsible for the NFS standard.

    >NNTP(network news transfere protol): the service which usenet messages are sent through.

    >NNTP SERVER:is the computer which hosts a newsgroup or newsgroups.

    >NORTON:is a large global company which makes firewalls,system tool,virus scanner and all sorts of heath system programs.

    >.NOS:network o/s syetem)

    >NOVELL:is a utah company that makes networking softwere,novell is one of the world leaders in networking products.

    >NOVELL DOS:is the renamed version of dr dos.

    >NSA(national security agency):is a top secret american agency which didicates it life to cracking ciphers and monitering communications from all of the world.It even has the knowledge to decompile c and to crack encruption.

    >NUI(network user interface):is the interface under a network is working.

    >NUKING:also known as denial of service is used for crashing computers by send thousands of packets to the host causing it to crash.

    >OCX(ole custom control:

    >OPEN DATALINK INTERFACE(ODI):a specification defined by novell and apple to provide a protocol for API for communication with network adapter drives and to support the maultible use of protocols by a network

    >OPEN SOURCE:is refered to softwere with free source code which means it can be changed,Linux is so popular because its all open source wich means you can edit programs to the way u want it.

    >OPRAH:is an webpage client browser used for internet browsing.

    >OO(object oriented.)

    >OOP: object orented programming.

    >OS/2:a windows like o/s from ibm,microsoft windows is like a clone of os/2 with very much the same features.

    >OSI(open system connections):is a model which shows data has moved accross a netowork and is made up of 7 layers that the data travels through:application layer,presention layer,sesion layer,transport,layer,,the link layer,and the physical layer.

    >.o/s(opearting system)is the softwere which a computer runs on,unix,freebsd,linux,windows,applemac,e.t.c are all examples of o/s.

    >.OVERWRITE:is when a hacker changes or edites the log file or in cracker terms it means to delete data and change it.

    >OUT OF BAND:Transmission of management information for Fibre Channel components outside of the Fibre Channel network, typically over Ethernet.

    >OUTLOOK EXPRESS:is an email and newsgroup client used for sending and recieing email and usenet messages.

    >PACKET:a piece of information typcially used in communcations(modem or network),a packet is a peice of data usally sent from one computer to another.the data is stored in side the packet,along with other information used by what ever protocol under which the packet is being sent.

    >PACKET SNIFFING:is when a hacker installs a sniffer on the network recording all the network tcp/udp hand shakes and passwords e.t.c,packet sniffing is used by admins as well looking for problem in their network.

    >PARTION:A subdivision of the capacity of a physical or virtual disk. Partitions are consecutively numbered ranges of blocks that are recognized by MS-DOS, Windows, and most UNIX operating systems. Synonym for the type of extent used to configure arrays. A contiguously addressed range of logical blocks on a physical media that is identifiable by an operating system via the partition's type and subtype fields. A partition's type and subtype fields are recorded on the physical media and hence make the partition self-identifying. partitioning

    >PASCALL:a programming language mainly used for teaching programming concepts with command that look like regelar english. A high level language, the youngest of the ALGOL family and concidered to be LAME by the hacker community. Originally designed by Professor Niklaus Wirth (1970) as a programming language to teach non-programmers to program. The name originates from the French mathematician Blaise Pascal who invented the first mechanical calculator in 1645.

    >PASSIVE OPENING:a state in which TCP port is ready to recieve incoming connections,such as a telnet server waiting for users.

    >.PASSWORD:Is the most common way for ppl protecting data,so that prying eyes cant get in,now aa days theres a lot of password crackers but most admins arent stupis enoguh to use a common password but they use l3tters and n(bers.

    >PASSWORD CRAKCER:is a program or script used to brute force a password protected computer or file.

    >PASSWORD PROTECTED:is when u cant access a file or computer without a legitiment password.

    >PCANYWHERE:is a remote administration program used for contacting your computer when your in a remote destination.

    >PC DOS(personal computer disk operating system):

    >PCNFS:A daemon that permits personal computers to access file systems accessed through the NFS protocol.

    >PDL:is a programming language such as postscript which is processed by a micro processor in the printer.

    >PEEK:is a BASIC programming language that lets users view a particual file in a computers memory.

    >PEER TO PEER:is a network where every computer acts as a server ,common e.g would be a windows network sharing files and printers.

    >PEOPLE SEARCH:is when users try to track users down users with their email address using a ppl search engine such as yahoo people search.

    >Peripherals - Things connected and shared through a network, like printers and scanners.

    >PERL:is a scripting language for windows and unix and is used for doing certain tasks such as networking speed testing ,password cracking coding e.t.c

    >PINE:a terminal based email reader program thats runs on a unix box,it allows users to write and send emails.

    .>PGP(pretty good privacy):is an encryption package which allows users to encrypt their data so that its unreadably to ppl who cant provide the correct encryption key.

    >PHREAKING:are another set of underground users who are interested in hacking phones,getting free phone calls,seizing phonelines,call tapping e.t.c,phreaking is rarely did now a days as call companies are too advanced but back in the 70's their was a lot of freaks's.

    >PHYSICAL ADDRESS:a pernement network address burned into a network adapter by the manufacture

    >PICO:Is a unix text editor usually abalible by typing pico in a unix shell.

    >PING: packet internet grouper is used to see if a particualr ip addrees is active and if the computer is on,every o/s supports ping by typing ping ip in the command promt.

    >PITCH:Is a windows irc client similar to mirc

    >PL/1:is a earlier programming language used by ibm's in the 70's 1.

    >PPP(point to point protol):is used for dial up using modems who want to dial into a dial up server>also see slip

    >POLYMORPHIC VIRUS:is a virus that modefies its self when it effects a file on your computer,this makes it harder for an anti virus program harder to track it.

    >POP(post office protocol);is a serive which allows a user to retrive email from a mail server such as

    >POP 1/2/3:is version of pop which sends emails and recieves them unlike stmp which can only send mail.> is an example of pop email client.

    >PORT:can be 3 things but in hacker terms it is a open target in form as a open service such as 139,telnet,21 which means the hacker can try and exploit them to gain root or get access to windows 98 e.t.c

    >PORTSCAN:is to scan a computer for open ports,many ppl have different thoughts on this,40% of internet users think this is like going upto a house and checking for open windows and open doors and 60 per cent argue that it legal.A port scan is the first thing a hacker would do on his target system.

    >POSTSCRIPT: a page scripting language devloped by adobe system.

    >PPPT(point to point tunelling)a form of ppp which enebles information to be migled with a local area network.

    >PRINT SERVICE:a service that fulfills network requests to print doc's.

    >PROGRAMMER:is usally a skilled hacker or individual who has the abuity to write computer programs in code.

    >PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:are the computer languages used for writting programs,every language is similar to each other and different languages can only work on certain systems althgough C works on all o/s's,the most poplar languages are VCPP,C,VB,and DELPHI.

    >PROMPT:is the command environemt on a system which allows u to enter commands.

    >PROTOCOL:is a set of rules which allows a network to act by the rules,tcp is a hackers best protocol as all o/s support tcp and that means a windows machine can hack a unix.other protocols include udp and xmodem.

    <PROXY SERVER:is a computer which acts on your behalf,for e.g. if u configure your web browser to use a web proxy the broser will goto the proxy server then the proxy server would goto the site for u and send u the site back to ur broser,this mean that the site can't trace your ip address.

    >PS:Iis a unix command which shows u the processor status. or what execly is going on on the unix system ur on.

    >PUBLIC ENCRYPTION KEY:is a unique for of encryption data that requires to set of passwords:a private key and a pulic key.comminly used by PGP.

    >PYTHON:Another High Level language designed to teach non programmers about strict Sytax Rules, this one is alot more popular than Pascal and is, it is object orientated. Invented in 1990 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in Amsterdam. It was origonally designed with the aim to create an Advanced Scripting Language for the Amoeba System. Name originates from the authors favourate show 'Monty Pythons Flying Circus' further reading: comp.lang.python

    >QBASIC(quick basic):is a basic langugage version written by bill gates,usally qb is for the beginner programmer,qb is not really a good langugage as it is an event drive language which means u cant do other tasks unless youve did the the tasks in order.e.g code
    print "qbasic ver 7" input "whats your name!" name$ print "hey "; name$ beep end

    >QUERY:to search a database for particular information,a hacker usally is interested in the whois query.

    >QUESO:is a remote fingerprinting uttility for determing an computer o/s.

    >RAS(remote access server):is a dial up server which comes free with win nt and win 2000.

    >RCP:a remote file transfere utiility.

    >READ-ONLY:is a type of storage or file which u can read but not change.Usually read only log files are the cause for hacker getting traced,although like everything theres exploit to get by them!.

    >REBOOT:is to shut a computer down localy or remotly,trojans like back orrifice and netbus include tools for rebooting a windows user remotly boot,if a hacker or cracker get root on linux he can reboot the system by typing init 6 in his remote command promt.

    >REDHAT(RH):is a linux distro renound for its easy to use features and its desktop environment.

    >REG EDIT:is a like a windows control panel except u edit the data in hexadcimal,regedit is a very good tool for changing the way windows works,for e.g with reg edit u could change your data so that your file and printer sharing isnt a valible to remote users e.t.c/e.t.c.

    >RELATION OPERATOR:a symbol used to compare two or more values in programming.

    >RELOAD:is used to refresh a web site so that it can stay upto date on the latest news e.t.c

    >REMAPPING:is used by admins to change their port numbers so hackers think that it an different service.

    >REMOTE:is a computer which is un a remote location such as in a different city.

    >REMOTE ADMINISTION:adminstrion a network from a remote location.

    >REMOTE ATTACK:is when an attacker tries to hack in from an exsternal connection such as the net.

    >REMOTE COPY(RCP):the unix based uttility that allows you to copy files between 2 computers using syntax that is similar the unix command "cp".it provides a simple syntax to copy files and does not require the user to login proior to initaitng the file copy process.

    >REMOTE VNC:is a remote control tool which lets windows,unix,mac,and other o/s users to view their desktop from anywhere in the world.

    >RESEQUENCING:assembling incoming TCP segements so that they are in order in which they were sent.

    >RESOLVER:under DNS,a client that queries the name server accros a network to gain information on the domain name space.

    >REVERSE ADDRESS RESOULTION PROOCOL(rarp):a tcp/ip protocol that returns an ip address if given a physical address.This protocol is typically used by diskless workstations that have boot prom installed in their network adapters.

    >REXEC:a remote command execution uttilty.

    >RFC(request for comment):are networking papers wrote by computer hackers,admins ,and other smart people,rfc have information on networks,protcol,e.t.c and are known as different numbers such as rfc 1700(port numbers).

    >RFI(radion frequency interface)

    >RIP:routing information protocol:a protocol that determins the best path for routing trafic accross a network.

    >RIP LISTINGING:a process in which a computer listens in on rip packets and adds the info to routing information tables.

    >RING NETWORK:see token ring:

    >RLOGIN:a remote login uttiity.

    >ROOT:is the main user on a unix network who can do anything he wants like change users password,delete data,use every command and so on.Root is also refered to as su(super user),a hacker main objetive is to gain root on his target network.When a cracker or hacker get root on a large web host provider it is possible for him to change every users web page in seconds by uploading an script and executing it to change the data.

    >ROOT PASSWORD:is the password that a user needs to gain root.Users wanting to gain root localy on a linux box can do so by typing linux 1 in lilo promt then typing "passwd" and entering a new password.

    >ROOTSHELL:is the main place on the internet for exploits with over 1000 exploits and docmentrentations.

    >ROUNDING ERROR:a one cent error that occurs when a computer converts decimal numbers into binary code.

    >ROUTER:a network device which fowarda data by logital address(ip addreses).

    >ROUTING TABLE:a routing table within the router that relates networks ID's to network paths.

    >RPM:is a packing manager used on linux o/s for installing new programs from a linux disk.

    >RSH:A remote command executing utility.

    >RS-232C(recomended standard 232C:is the standard way for transmitting data accross serial cables and is used for modems as well.

    >RUNLEVEL:is used on unix for different tasks and booting,runlevel 1-5 is refered to single user and runlevel 6 is reboot,runlevel 0 is shut down:a user can change runlevels by typing "init runlevelnumber" in a unix command promt.

    >RUPTIME:a unix shell command which shows the users logged on.

    >SATAN:is a program used to check for known exploits on a system.

    >SCAN:is used to find computer systems.The most used of type of scanner used is a netbios scanner,a programmer only has to make a few pieces of code for a program to scan ip addresses looking for particular open ports.>also see war dialing.

    >SCREEN DUMB:is a trojan add on which lets script kiddies take a picture of a remote o/s which has a trojan port open.

    >SCRIPT:A p//arameterized list of primitive I/O bus operations intended to be executed in sequence. Often used with respect to ports, most of which are able to execute scripts of I/O commands autonomously (without policy processor assistance). A sequence of instructions intended to be parsed and carried out by another program. Perl, VBScript, JavaScript and Tcl are all scripting languages.

    >SCRIPT KIDDIE:is a person who is usally around 14-30 and they dont really not what hacking is,inexception usally they cant program and they dont know anything on networking but they seem to think disribtuing other crackers viruses and using trojans are hacking,most hackers go through this stage but they grow out it quick.

    >SEARCH ENGINE:is the newbie hackers best freind as users can search for specific exploits,texts,e/t/c

    >SECURE BROWSER:is a browser which is complant with SSL encryption which stops sniffers retrieving data.

    >SECURE HYPERTEXT TRANSFERE PROTOCOL (SHTTP): A security standard for authenticating and encrypting HTTP requests and responses.

    >SECURITY ZONE:in internet explorer a segement of the internet or intranet assigned a level of security.

    >SEGMENT:the data package passed from TCP at the transport layer,conection oreneted protocol.

    >SENDMAIL:is a unix program used for sending mail to its destonation,sendmail runs on port 25 stmp and is considered a buggy program.

    >SEMANTICSS:The Study of meaning .

    >SERVER:is a computer which controls a network letting clients connect to it,theres literly thousands of servers,the most popular one are webservers,ftp,telnet and DCHP,A server computer usally the one that the hacker goes for remotly as it has open ports,common server networks included peer to peer an client/server.Webservers and other servers that are up 24/7 usally dont look like pcs but they are a small little box with no mointer,meaning it doesnt get hot as quick as a normal pc.

    >SERVER MESSAGE BLOCK:the protocol devoped by microsoft,intel and ibm that defies a serious of command used to pass information between network computers.

    >SERVICE:is refered to an open port or a program designed to let others connect to it,e.g www sites would be called http service,email's would be refered to stmp service or pop servicel.

    >SESSION:is every time u connect to a server is referred a session.e.g netbios session

    >SH:is the korn shell on unix and is basically a command environment.

    >SHARENAME:is the access name given to windows netbios sharing files or drives,share names are the name given to a drive or file,e.g net use p: \\network\docs would acccess the share docs.

    >SHELL:An interface which makes a program easier to use such as kde for linux instead of using a command shell.>also a shell can be a unix command prompt.

    >SHELL ACCOUNT:is for non unix users or want to use unix commands but dont have access to unix so the only way for a windows user to get unix is by telnetting to a free or commercial shell account and logging in then he or she can issue unix commands.

    >SHELL PROGRAMMING:is a scripting language used for issuing shell commands quicker just like a batch file does in dos.

    >SHTML(server passed hyper text markup language):is a special web page doc which contains commands to make the page do more.

    >SIGAL TO NOISE:the ammount of informatioon versus idle chatters in a newsgroup posting or email messgage,refers to users who normally post unwanted **** like cracker question in a hacker group or SPAM!

    >SIGN ON:to call a BBS or dial up to your isp.

    >SIGNITURE:is commenly used by a user wanting to display a message at the end of their email messgaes or usenet postings.

    >SINGLE USER:for safetly reason some computers only support single user accounts so when a user is logged in no other user can login.

    >SLIP(serial line internet protol):a method of hooking by using a high speed modem or standard phone line.

    >SMALLTALK: one of the first object-orented programming languages in the world.

    >SMART TERMINAL:a computer connected to a network that can function independently of the network,smart terminals are usally just personal computers with theit own hard disk,disk drive and memory.

    >SMTP(simple mail transfere protocol):The basic way email messgages are sent through networks>

    >SNADBOY REVLOLATION TOOL;is a program which can decrypt local *********** passwords on windows.

    >SNOBOL(string orented symbothic language:is an old programming language designed by bell laboraties.

    >SOCKET:the network address for a particular application on a particular computer consisting of the computer's ip address followed by the port number of the application.

    >Softwere:is any type of computer program from an operating system such as windows or a small program such as a virus.without softwere there would be no computer even graphics cards need softwere to make it function properly.

    >Source:refers to the destination of a packet or in security terms it is used for tracing hackers back to their source.Source can also mean the programming code of a program.

    >SPA(secure password authentication):any authentication which the password isnt send over a network.

    > annoying messgages usally advertisements which are sent to newsgroups and email addresses,the hacker culture to spam very seriously and spammers are usally reported to their isp's.

    >SPEW:a single message posted repeatably to the same newsgroup.

    >SPOILER:an email or usenet posting which contains information on up coming events such as long awaited movies or programs on computer programs on tv and so on.

    >SPOILER SPACE:serveral blank lines at the begiining of a messgage in usenet or in emails.

    >SSL(secure socets layer):a protocol on the internet for sending and recieving information such as credit card details on the internet in such a way which only recepiants can decode the data.Hacking attacks like sniffing fail to work when a site is using SSL because the data is useless to a cracker and the data is un readable.also An industry-standard technique for authenticating and encrypting TCP connections.

    >STACK:a data structure that programmers use to store and remove data in a last in,first ou(LIFO) order,used essesically in assembly>information isplaced on the stack by using a push command.information is removed by a pop command or a pull command.

    >STAR:In the shape of a star with a server in the middle and clients connected to it. Fast and is VERY flexable, since terminals can be detached and reatached without breaking the flow of data. Also supports heavy traffic. In a star topology, there is a dedicated Server.

    >STAR NETWORK:a network configuration in which the central computer has a directline(network cable) connecting every other computer on the network.

    >STATIC IP:is an ip address which nerver changes but always stays the same,every website and every adsl computer has a static ip address,static ip addreses are considered a security risk for computers with no protection softwere.

    >STELTH VIRUS:is a sneaky virus that try's to make its self invisable to anti virus programs that will destroy it.

    >STP <Sheilded Twisted Pair>:A Much thicker type of networking cable than UTP although it is cabable of carrying alot more than the UTP and is about twice as thick.

    >STRING VARIABLE:a symbol that a program uses to represent a group of charcters.

    >STRUCTERED PROGRAM:a method of writting programs in small sub programs or modules so that the programs are easy to read and understand,structered programs emphasize that programs can be written using three typs of statements:seqential,loop and condiational.sequencial programs run one after the other,conditioanl statements run are IF-THEN or CASE statements,loop statements are WHILE-DO,DO-WHILE,FOR-DO and REPEAT-UNTILL statements.if u dont know what this means read up on structered programming.

    >SUB7: one of the most used remote adimistration trojans,script kiddies install the back door by sending the victim sub7 server then entering the victims ip address in his/hers client.

    >SUBAREA NETWORK:he formal name for hierarchical, mainframe-centric SNA networks. The backbones of these networks are made up of interconnected Type 5 (SNA Hosts) and Type 4 (Communication Controller) subarea nodes.

    >SUBNET MASK:a 32 bit value that allows the recepiment of ip packets to desguinish the network ID portion of the ip address from the host ID.

    >SUPPORT:is to do with o/s and protocol and to see if one systems supports login from another type of o/s,windows,unix,linux,and mac e.t.c all support each other as they are based on tcp/ip networking,that means its possible to hack unix from windows or windows from unix e.t.c

    >SUSE:is another version of linux which has more security than other version like mandrake and winlinux 2000.

    >SYN:a control flag signifying that sequence number synchroization is taking place,the SYN flag is used at the beginning of a TCP connection as part of the "three way handshake"

    >SYSEDIT:is a program with windows used for editing autoexec.bat,*.sys,*.bat and any other system files:the program can be started by typing "sysedit" in ms dos

    >SYSOP:is known as the system operator,it was an old term for the person in charge of a BBS,they are now known as a administrator.

    >SYSTEM:is the program or o/s which controls a computer,commen systems include apple mac,windows nt,windows 2000,dos,windows ce,unix,vax,linux,iris,amiga e.t.c,The most important thing that an hacker needs to know before hacking a computer is the system its run on .

    >Systems Network Architecture (SNA)IBM's strategic communications architecture which specifies how SNA hardware and software products communicate and connect with each other. SNA describes the logical structures, formats, protocols and operational procedures for transmitting data through a network, as well as for controlling the network configuration and operation.

    >SWITCH:A computer capable of routing thousands of connections a second, this used to be done on a switchboard by an operator, but as telephone traffic grew, a faster more complicated system was needed. A Switch is located (usually) at your local CO and this is what you hear when you pick up the phone, then when you dial, you send the correct tones to the Switch and it connects you to the desired phone.

    >T1:a high speed communication line for internet access,typcially running at speeds of 1.554 megabits per second,mostly isp's,universites and ppl with money have these fast lines.

    >T3:is an even faster connection line to the net which runs at 45 megabits per second.

    >TAR:a backup and archiving program used on unix for copying files and clumping togther loads of files together.

    >TCP/IP(transmission control protocol/internet protocol):is the standard way from transmtting data accross a network or the internet,tcp/ip is so widely used on the net because all operating systems support it,without tcp/ip users cant use the internet,ftp,www,telnet,and irc e.t.c all use tcp because it has error correction in it which stops errors when downloading,e.t.c>also see UDP

    >TCP connect() scanning : This is the most basic form of TCP scanning. The connect() system call provided by your operating system is used to open a connection to every interesting port on the machine. If the port is listening, connect() will succeed, otherwise the port isn't reachable. One strong advantage to this technique is that you don't need any special privileges. Any user on most UNIX boxes is free to use this call. Another advantage is speed. While making a separate connect() call for every targeted port in a linear fashion would take ages over a slow connection, you can hasten the scan by using many sockets in parallel. Using non-blocking I/O allows you to set a low time-out period and watch all the sockets at once. This is the fastest scanning method supported by nmap, and is available with the -t (TCP) option. The big downside is that this sort of scan is easily detectable and filterable. The target hosts logs will show a bunch of connection and error messages for the services which take the connection and then have it immediately shutdown.

    >TCPDUMB:is a unix packet sniffer used by admins to moniter their traffic,hackers use it to sniff for passwords,e.t.c

    >TCP FIN PORT SCANNING : There are times when even SYN scanning isn't clandestine enough. Some firewalls and packet filters watch for SYNs to restricted ports, and programs like synlogger and Courtney are available to detect these scans. FIN packets, on the other hand, may be able to pass through unmolested. This scanning technique was featured in detail by Uriel Maimon in Phrack 49, article 15. The idea is that closed ports tend to reply to your FIN packet with the proper RST. Open ports, on the other hand, tend to ignore the packet in question. As Alan Cox has pointed out, this is required TCP behavior. However, some systems (notably Micro$oft boxes), are broken in this regard. They send RST's regardless of the port state, and thus they aren't vulnerable to this type of scan. It works well on most other systems I've tried. Actually, it is often useful to discriminate between a *NIX and NT box, and this can be used to do that.

    >TCP REVERSE IDENT PORT SCANNING: As noted by Dave Goldsmith in a 1996 Bugtraq post, the ident protocol (rfc1413) allows for the disclosure of the username of the owner of any process connected via TCP, even if that process didn't initiate the connection. So you can, for example, connect to the http port and then use identd to find out whether the server is running as root. This can only be done with a full TCP connection to the target port

    >TCP SYN PORT SCANNING: This technique is often referred to as "half-open" scanning, because you don't open a full TCP connection. You send a SYN packet, as if you are going to open a real connection and wait for a response. A SYN|ACK indicates the port is listening. A RST is indicative of a non- listener. If a SYN|ACK is received, you immediately send a RST to tear down the connection (actually the kernel does this for us). The primary advantage to this scanning technique is that fewer sites will log it.

    >TELEPHONY APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACE: (TAPI):a set of calls that allows an application to control modems and telephones by routing functions calls to the appropiate service provider.

    >TELNET:is a unix or any other o/s service used for remote rogin,telnet provides access to a remote system's command prompt,the telnet serive runs on port 23,although the telnet progam can be used to connect to other ports.

    >TERMINAL:In hacker terms it could be refered to as a communication program such as hyperterminal but in unix terms it is a command environment,network terminals can be used to provide remote access to systems.

    >TERMINAL TYPE:used in telnet and other login programs for the setting of the program,common termianl setting are VT100 and echo.

    >THREE-WAY-HANDSHAKE:a three step procedure that synchronizes seqence numbers and begins a TCP connection.

    >TOKEN RING NETWORK:A lan type network featuring a ring topolgy and a token passing network method,token ring is an expensive network and usally used in busineses to an alternitive to ethernet.

    >TOKEN PASSING.the network access layer used by the token ring network.

    >TOOLS:is the tools which help hackers and admins out like nmap,tcpdumb,queso,john the ripper,telnet,e.t.c

    >TRACING:is to trace the source ip address of a hacker or cracker,admins usally trace hackers by looking in the log files or by monitering tools,once an admin get the ip address of the attacker(which isnt always the correct one)he will usally query the ip in a whois search then contact the ISP of the person telling them of such activities.

    >TROJAN HORSE:a nasty program which hides inside a legitiment program,named after the trojan horse of troy.Remote adminsration trojan's usally are the biggest threat for users who run windows because if a cracker sendz the victim a file and they execute it the attacker can control there pc remotly and can usally do more than the person in front of it can do.

    >TRANSPORT LAYER:the layer of the tcp stack that provides error checking and serves as an interface for network applications e.g users who use web brosers like internet explorer go through thhis process when downloading files.

    >TRON:a basic programming language command thats's conjuction with trace and ON.the tron command enables programmers to examine a program as it runs.

    >TRUST-BASED SECURITY:a cross platform security model thats adds intermidate levls of trust to the java security model.

    >TTL(time to live):used in network commands such as ping and traceroute,tracert.TTL is usally around 255 m sec's.

    >TUTORIALS:are free documents on the web which guide newbies through hacking,networking,programming,how to do,e.t.c.

    >TWISTED PAIR:a set of networking cables which dont need a port to connect them to a network.

    >UDP(user datagram protocol:is a network protocol which runs much faster than tcp/ip alghough it has no error checking,its is a connectionlees protocol

    >URL(uniform resource locator):is a command which contacts veroius internet sites like http:// for the world wibe web,gopher:// for gopher,mailito: for email,telnet:// for telnet,ftp:// for file transfere protocl,e.t.c

    >UNIX:An o/s devloped by bells labs in the last 1960's refines in the 70's and 80's,written in c(which was devloped by bells labs as well).UNIX is a maultiuser o/s usally used on networks and personal computers in universities.Unix will work on any o/s because its written in c,unix is a command based o/s like ms dos but more cruder and powerfull.Unix has severall graphicals user interfaces for it including xwindows,and open lock,unix is used by hackers because it supports all the major programming languages and because it has far no network cappabuilities.

    >UPLOAD:to transfere a file from a computer and put it on another computer,crackers are known to upload viruses to hacked systems.

    >UPTIME:is a interesting command for windows telnet users and unix users,uptime shows how long the computer has been up for and also it shows all the users logged in.

    >USENET(user net):is a internet factillity which offers a virety of newsgroups,bullitin boards,and pulic forums.

    >USER:ON unix accounts user is a user account which has restricted access.,

    >USER ID:is a valid user account name on a system.


    >UUCP(unix to unix copy program):a wide internation of wide area networks of all sorts of unix computers,uucp is used to copy data from one computer to another,which means the service is under threat from hackers.

    >VANDALS:are internet crackers who like to destroy data and distrubute viruses across the net,crackers like to build websites using activex and java so that they can cause havock on the inosent victim;s computer who visits the site.

    >VARIBLE:in programming,a symbol that represents a number value or a string of text in a program.Using varibles gives programmers the fredom to change to change the value at any point in the program.

    >VAX:a line of computers produced by digital equipment corp.VAX is another o/s similar to unix and is widely used in banks and hospitals,because of that wardialing is the scan attack the hacker uses on vax.

    >VBX(visal basic extension):are an addon code for a vb program.

    >VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK(VPN): technology which one can securly connect to a remote server by tunneling through a network.

    >VIRUS:a virus is a desructive program which usally affects windows users,changing the bios settings,deleting data,spreading its self although the correct term is called worm,viruses are made by usally 14-22 year olds wanting to prove that they can program,most viruses are written in visual basic,assembly and c,most of the common day viruses are clones from the old ones with the code slighty modified.

    >VISUAL BASIC(vb):a microsoft version of the basic language with a user interface that lets your draw your graphical interface then u can write in BASIC commands to make the program work,VB is commenly used for macro's in MS Word and other microsoft packages.,VIsual basic is so commently used because it is much easier to learn that c,c++,pascall and in VB programs can get made quickers,VB is considered Lame amongt the hacker community because the concepts of VB teach users bad habbits in programming.

    >WAIS(wide area information server):a server used for making searching the web easier.

    >WAP(wireless application protocool):is a scripting lanuage used for making websites that WAP mobile phones can view.Recently their been WAP viruses released by crackers which record users phone calls.

    >WAREZ:known as the internet pirates,warez dudes are another part of the underground who like to crack softwere trials and copy illigal softwere.

    >WARDIALER:also known as a demon dialer,a modem program which dials from say 555-0000 on up through 555-9999,finding computers with modem support.this is way a hacker would find an phone support o/s in his area.

    >WARFTP:is the most popular ftp server for home users.

    >WARGAMES:A 1983 film staring mathew broderick who is a teenage hacker who gains access to mility computers,wargames concentrates on dial up hacking,wardialing e.t.c

    >WEB:the nick name for world wibe web.

    >WEB SERVER:a computer or softwere program thats runs on a computer and answers request for web pages on the world wibe web,the most common web server are lotus domino,apache,and microsoft IIS.

    >WEB SPACE:a computer that stores users files and gives the rest of the world acces to them as a web site.t

    >WEBCRAWLER:a a robot designed for searching the world wide web,webcrawlers displas its result based on how many web pages contain similar words to those u are searching for.

    >WIDE AREA NETWORK(WAN):a network of computers that spans a large distance,as opposed to a local rea network which invloves computers on the same building.

    >WINDOWS CE:is a small version of windows designed for pamtop computers,also dreamcast based on windows CE.

    >WINDOWS 3.1:was one of the first graphical user interfaces built by Microsoft,windows 3.1 is has very insecure password protection and is 90 per sent built on dos.

    >WINDOWS 95/98/ME:are recent windows o/s desgined mostly for powerfull game play,and to make computers easier. WINDOWS NT/2000:are the most expensive windows o/s mostly used for busineses with networks,windows 2000 has a lot of features of windows 98 and is built with more networking features of windows NT. WINDOWS XP:is the last o/s designed by Microsoft.

    >WINDOWS FOR WORKGROUPS:a special feature with windows desinged for usage with LAN's

    >WINGATES:is a proxy server which hides a computer ip address making the wingates server's ipaddress look like the computer ip adddress,wingates is used on the internet and when using network services like netbios,e.t.c.

    >WINS(windows internet naming service):a wins server is a microsoft implemention of a netbios name server.

    >WINSTOCK:a windows programming interface that provides access to TCP and UDP ports.

    >XWINDOW:a graphical based user interface often associated with unix.

    >YAHOO:is a web directroy search engine which has auctions,chat,mail,e.t.c,also yahoo has currently one of the largest search engines in the world.

    >ZOMBIE:is a programming script which is usally uploaded to hacked computers,zombies mainly used by crackers are used for nuking users,hacking and doing other hacking/cracking techniques,zombies can be used to nuke ip addreses from a hacked computer meaning the hacked computer gets traced.

  2. #2
    OMG What a extensive list..

    Quite usefull for the young apprentice.. =)
    Missing em ol BBS' days!
    Virtus -

  3. #3
    Dark pls quote your source - you wouldn't want someone passing off your hard work as their own would u??

    other areas where this list appears
    1. astalavista
    2. BaoBaB
    3. BlackSun
    4. Drakel
    5. Tim-only

    remember guys quote ur sources!


  4. #4
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2002

    What are you doing? Who do you think you are?. I HAVE NEVER SAID this work is mine. Are you nuts???!!! Are you trying to bann me??? I'm just tring to help putting some words definitions for newbies, but NEVR SAID i wrote these definitions. I really hate when persons like you think that are like gods and always jugde any work as you like. Robbing the works of others is awful, i would never do it. You're right, this post is in astalavista and other sites where it says you can distribute it for others to learn. Again, what's your problem??? Maybe you're trying to show me as a BAD person to the other members of AO. No, you won't do it because i know the kind of person i am, and will continue showing AO that i can really help and be helped.

    Thanks for pre-judging my post, what you did was "ROBBING" my help to others because you're showing this thread as negative when it isn't and never was my intention.

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Aug 2001
    Originally posted by -DaRK-RaiDeR-
    What are you doing? Who do you think you are?. I HAVE NEVER SAID this work is mine. Are you nuts???!!! Are you trying to bann me??? I'm just tring to help putting some words definitions for newbies, but NEVR SAID i wrote these definitions. I really hate when persons like you think that are like gods and always jugde any work as you like. Robbing the works of others is awful, i would never do it. You're right, this post is in astalavista and other sites where it says you can distribute it for others to learn. Again, what's your problem??? Maybe you're trying to show me as a BAD person to the other members of AO. No, you won't do it because i know the kind of person i am, and will continue showing AO that i can really help and be helped.

    Thanks for pre-judging my post, what you did was "ROBBING" my help to others because you're showing this thread as negative when it isn't and never was my intention.
    You indeed didn't say the works is yours, but neither did you quote your source... Like it or not, but it's an AntiOnline-policy to quote your source. You can read why here.
    And I don't see where it says that you can distribute it...

    I haven't read the entire list, but the ADSL-definition is a little off :/

    ADSL:adsl(asymetic digital subscriber line):is a connection to the net were users dont use dial up but have a connection 24/7 and usally have a static ip address.
    I'm on ADSL, and I DO have to dial up... And trying to explain ADSL without explaining why it's an ASYMMETRIC connection... :/
    I'm pretty sure there are more errors in this thing :/

  6. #6
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jan 2002
    You most always quote your source when you copy and paste someones work, than you won t get negged!
    i m gone,thx everyone for so much fun and good info.
    cheers and good bye

  7. #7
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2002

    I didn't know i have to put the source of my info until now, and i have read the newbies faqs, what to do in AO, and others things you must read when you first join AO. Maybe i read it but i forgot it. No problem, i know i just want to help and will continue doing it. No matter what you said or how many negs do you give me. I'll be here until YOU or AO think i should be banned.


    One more thing, but I have read tutorials of some of YOU (the AO older members) and have MANY, MANY errors too. But that's OK because tutorials are just opinion of people about how to do many things. So maybe your opinions are wrong to, besides as valnhallen says above, this is not my work so it's not my error neither.

    I ACCEPT THE NEGS, thanks and bye.

  8. #8
    Some Assembly Required ShagDevil's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2002
    Dark, as well intentioned as your original thread was, or any thread for that matter, plagiarism is plagiarism,here at AO, and anywhere outside of AO. It is a serious crime and carries with it, serious legal liability. I don't think people are negging you for the content of your thread (initially I thought it was the length), rather, people are negging you to show you the severity and the weight carried by not quoting your sources(I'd rather get some negative points then a letter in the mail from someone's attorney anyday). I'm no angel, I have done the same thing, so let me get off the high horse right now. I learned my lesson in quite the same fashion, so, no worries (I didn't neg you). And as a matter of fact, I just fixed my signature as I never quoted the movie where I took my quotes from.

    Plagiarize - To appropriate for use as one's own passages or ideas from (another).
    The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language - Fourth Edition

    Just found this, thought I'd add this as one of the most interesting ways of opening up a definition...
    CRACKERS:is a gay man who likes talking it up the ass.......
    The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his - George Patton

  9. #9
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2002

    I have already apologised with valhallen and negative personally. I'm saying again that i had accepted the negs and have learned a little more from AO. I'm sure this will never happen again. Now i apologise to every one of you for any misunderstand with this thread. It was never my intention to rob the work of others, really.

    Sorry again guys,


  10. #10
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Apr 2002
    The Netwatch description is totally false.
    quoted from
    Netwatch allows a user to monitor an Ethernet segment or PPP line and examine activity on the network. Hostnames are highlighted in colours to indicate activity on the bus network based on time. The monitor includes statistics on transmitted and received packets, transmitted and received bytes, protocol of last packet (TX or RC), last communication partner (IP address) and Logging entire stats to an ASCII file. There is a TOP mode which allows a sorted list of hosts based on IP usage. All info is updated on a per second basis.
    and it works under Linux. Not Windows.
    Life is boring. Play NetHack... --more--

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